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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 57-60

Histological and biochemical changes induced by ethanolic leaf extract of Moringa oleifera in the liver and lungs of adult wistar rats


1 Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi, Anambra State; Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Basic Medical Science, Edo University, Iyamho, Edo State, Nigeria
2 Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria
3 Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi, Anambra State, Iyamho, Edo State, Nigeria
4 Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Basic Medical Science, Edo University, Iyamho, Edo State, Nigeria

Date of Submission14-Oct-2018
Date of Decision22-Nov-2018
Date of Acceptance29-Nov-2018
Date of Web Publication13-Mar-2019

Correspondence Address:
Mr. Ferdinand Uwaifo
Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Basic Medical Science, Edo University, Iyamho, Edo State
Nigeria
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/bbrj.bbrj_126_18

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  Abstract 


Background: Moringa oleifera, otherwise referred to as a miracle tree, has been used in the treatment of numerous diseases. Moringa has been the subject of intensive scientific research; however, there has been scant information on its sub-acute effect on the kidneys. This work was done to investigate the histological and biochemical effect of M. oleifera on the liver and lungs of adult Wistar rats. Twenty-eight adult healthy rats were used for this study. The rats were divided into four groups of seven per group and fed with pellets and water ad libitum. Group A served as the control, Group B was fed with 500 mg/kg of ethanolic extract of Moringa leaf, Group C with 1000 mg/kg, while Group D with 1500 mg/kg body weight. Methods: Doses were administered once daily using oral gavage for 28 days. Before the time of sacrificing the animals, blood samples were collected into plain test tubes and the animals anesthetized before sacrifice. Necropsy was performed and the tissues (liver and lungs) processed and stained using hematoxylin and eosin staining techniques. Some liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase [AST], alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase) and albumin were analyzed. Results: There were significant increases in AST and albumin in the 1000 mg/kg (19.50 ± 2.32, P = 0.036 and39.18 ± 8.56, P = 0.041) and 1500 mg/kg (26.55 ± 3.81, P = 0.021 and 46.75 ± 8.57, P = 0.021), respectively, in the treated animals when compared with the control (21.47 ± 16.33 and 4.54 ± 1.09). Histoarchitecture of the liver showed vascular congestion in the 1500 mg/kg treated rats which is indicative of congestive hepatopathy. There was no noticeable structural damage on the lungs. Conclusion: The result showed that M. oleifera may be toxic to the liver at concentrations higher than 1000 mg/kg.

Keywords: Electrolytes, liver, Moringa oleifera, oxidative stress, rats


How to cite this article:
Uwaifo F, Ngokere A, Obi E, Olaniyan M, Bankole O. Histological and biochemical changes induced by ethanolic leaf extract of Moringa oleifera in the liver and lungs of adult wistar rats. Biomed Biotechnol Res J 2019;3:57-60

How to cite this URL:
Uwaifo F, Ngokere A, Obi E, Olaniyan M, Bankole O. Histological and biochemical changes induced by ethanolic leaf extract of Moringa oleifera in the liver and lungs of adult wistar rats. Biomed Biotechnol Res J [serial online] 2019 [cited 2019 May 21];3:57-60. Available from: http://www.bmbtrj.org/text.asp?2019/3/1/57/254092




  Introduction Top


Moringa oleifera (MO) is a tropical plant belonging to the family of Moringaceae. It is the most widely cultivated species of the family and is believed to be a native of the Sub-Himalayan tracts of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Afghanistan.[1] It is known by several common names including drumstick tree, Moringa, horseradish tree, ben oil tree, to mention but a few.[2] It is now cultivated across the tropical belt.[3] Viable and flourishing in all ecological zones in Nigeria, all parts of the MO plant have been proven useful in nutrition, medicine, water treatment, and a host of human endeavors.[4],[5] MOgrows across Nigeria and is known by local names that vary between ethnic groups.[5] It is called Zogale, Zogale gandi and Bagaruwar makka (Hausa), Ewe igbale and Idagbo monoye (Yoruba), Ikwa oyibo (Igbo), and Kabi (Kilba).[6] It is also known as Haakoobisii (Mumuye), Jeghlegede (Tiv), Gegeredi (Idoma), and Gelgedi (Igala).[7] This study was carried out to investigate the structural and biochemical effect of MO on the liver and lungs of rats.


  Methods Top


This work was done using 28 adult healthy Wistar rats which were between 11 and 12 weeks of age having a weight range between 210 and 240 g. The rats were divided into four groups of seven rats in each group and were allowed to acclimatize for 2 weeks and fed with standard Pfizer-branded rodent feed obtained from Livestock Feed, Nigeria Ltd. ad libitum, and water was available to the rats in water bottles of the downspout type (drinking nozzle facing downward). The acute toxicity test of the ethanolic extracts of MO showed that no deaths were recorded in rats up to 4500 mg/kg body weight of the extracts The rats were also fed with Moringa extract at different concentrations: Group A: Served as the control, Group B: 500 mg/kg, Group C: 1000 mg/kg and Group D: 1500 mg/kg (which represented one third of the LD50); Group A were only fed with their normal food and water The doses were administered once daily using oral gavage for 28 days at the end of the animals were anesthetized with chloroform, while blood samples were collected through cardiac puncture into plain bottles using 21-gauge (21G) needles mounted on a 5-ml syringe. Necropsy was done and the liver and lung tissues were excised and fixed in 10% formal saline for histological evaluation. Ethics committee approval number “EC61600” date “14th May 2018”


  Results Top


The values from the findings presented in [Table 1] showed significant (P < 0.05) increases in the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in a dose-dependent fashion detected at 1000 and 1500 mg/kg of the treated rats. However, there were significant (P < 0.05) decreases in the enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH) at 1000 and 1500 mg/kg of the treated rats while catalase (CAT) was significantly reduced at 1500 mg/kg of the treated rats. There was however no significant (P > 0.05) difference in SOD, GSH, and CAT activities and MDA level of the eviscerated lung tissues when compared with the control [Table 2].
Table 1: Effect of extract on the liver oxidative status of treated animals

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Table 2: Effect of extract on the lungs oxidative status of treated animals

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Results from the findings on liver markers aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) [Table 3] in the various test groups showed some obvious increase as compared to the control group; these differences were statistically significant for AST (19.50 ± 2.32, P = 0.036 and 26.55 ± 3.81, 0.021) in the 1000 and 1500 mg/kg treated rats, respectively, when compared with the control and ALP (71.00 ± 23.06, P = 0.023) was significant in the 1500 mg/kg of the treated rats when compared with the control. There was also statistical significant effect of Moringa leaf extract on albumin (39.18 ± 8.56, P = 0.041 and 46.75 ± 8.57, P = 0.021) in the 1000 and 1500 mg/kg treated rats, respectively, when compared with the control.
Table 3: Result of the effect of extract on liver parameters of Wistar rats

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Histological findings

The histological findings of the liver shows the photomicrograph of a 1500mg/kg treated liver tissue [Figure 1] with morphological alterations, indicative of congestive hepatopathy and the photomicrograph of a liver tissue control with normal cytoarchitecture [Figure 2].
Figure 1: Photomicrograph of 1500 mg/kg treated kidney tissue showing crevices (black arrows) and vascular congestion (blank arrow) indicative of chronic passive congestive hepatopathy (H and E, ×100)

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Figure 2: Photomicrograph of control liver tissue showing normal cytoarchitecture with central vein (arrows) (H and E, ×100)

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The histological findings of the lungs shows the photomicrograph of a lung tissue control [Figure 3] and the photomicrograph of a 1500mg/kg treated lung tissue [Figure 4], both having normal cytoarchitecture.
Figure 3: Photomicrograph of control lung tissue showing normal cytoarchitecture with normal alveolar walls (black arrow) (H and E, ×100)

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Figure 4: Photomicrograph of 1500 mg/kg treated heart tissue showing normal cytoarchitecture with normal alveolar walls (black arrows) (H and E, ×100)

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  Discussion Top


The values from the findings on liver markers AST and ALP in the various test groups showed some obvious increase as compared to the control group, these differences were statistically significant for AST (19.50 ± 2.32, P = 0.036 and 26.55 ± 3.81, P = 0.021) in the 1000 mg/kg and 1500 mg/kg treated rats, respectively, when compared with the control and ALP (71.00 ± 23.06, P = 0.023) was significant in the 1500 mg/kg of the treated rats when compared with the control. There was also statistical significant effect of Moringa leaf extract on albumin (39.18 ± 8.56, P = 0.041 and 46.75 ± 8.57, P = 0.021) in the 1000 and 1500 mg/kg treated rats, respectively, when compared with the control. This is not consistent with the findings of Thompson (2013) who claimed the nonsignificant (P > 0.05) effect of diet on AST, alanine aminotransferase, and ALP is an indication that the treatments have no untoward effect on rats.

The examined liver tissues [Figure 1] showed morphological alterations, indicative of congestive hepatopathy. These alterations were, however, not seen in the control section [Figure 2] which had a normal cytoarchitecture with central veins. Several research reports have also shown similar patterns.[8],[9],[10]

Histological findings on the lung tissues [Figure 3] and [Figure 4] showed no distinct cytoarchitectural distortion. Only a few publications have reported the effects of Moringa leaf extracts on the lung; however, the antiproliferative effects of Moringa leaf extract against alveolar epithelial cell cancer was reported by Tiloke et al.[11] Dany et al. and Jung also suggested that the leaf contains specific anticancer (active for the lung) agent but these studies used much lower dosages to obtain their findings.[12],[13]


  Conclusions Top


Although the consumption of different parts of MO including the leaves for various purposes has been widely accepted, MO leaf extract was found to cause a significant increase in AST and ALP. The histoarchitecture of the liver showed distortions. The result showed that MO is toxic to the liver at concentrations higher than 1000 mg/kg.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Fahey GB. A Prospective Study of Dietary intake and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome in HIV-Sero-positive Homosexual Men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2005:3:949-58.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Mishra G, Singh P, Verma R, Kumar S, Srivastav S, Jha KK, et al. Traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of Moringa oleifera plant: An overview. Der Pham Lett 2011;3:141-64.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Vlahov G, Chepkwony PK, Ndalut PK. 13C NMR characterization of triacylglycerols of Moringa oleifera seed oil: an “oleic-vaccenic acid” oil. J Agric Food Chem 2002;50:970-5.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Okorondu SI, Akujobi CO, Okorondu JN, Anyado-Nwadike SO. Antimicrobial activity of the leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera and Jatropha curcas on pathogenic bacteria. Int J Biol Chem Sci 2013;7:195-202.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Popoola JO, Obembe OO. Local knowledge, use pattern and geographical distribution of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) in Nigeria. J Ethnopharmacol 2013;150:682-91.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Thilza I, Sanni S, Isah Z, Sanni F, Talle M, Joseph M.In vitro antimicrobial activity of water extract of Moringa oleifera leaf stalk on bacteria normally implicated in eye diseases. Acad Arena 2010;2:80-2.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Tee NT, Lobiya JK, Benneth O. Income benefits of Moringa vis-à-vis other leafy vegetables to female traders in Jalingo markets, Taraba State, Nigeria. IOSR J Hum Soc Sci 2014;19:55-60.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Sillanaukee P. Laboratory markers of alcohol abuse. Alcohol 1996;31:613-6.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Nanji AA, Jokelainen K, Fotouhinia M, Rahemtulla M, Thomas P, Tipoe GL. Increased severity of alcoholic liver injury in female rats: Role of oxidative stress. Indian J Exp Biol 2001;22:1145-51.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Lieber CS. Alcoholic fatty liver: Its pathogenesis and mechanism of progression to inflammation and fibrosis. Alcohol 2004;34:9-19.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Tiloke C, Phulukdaree A, Chuturgoon AA. The antiproliferative effect of Moringa oleifera crude aqueous leaf extract on cancerous human alveolar epithelial cells. BMC Complement Altern Med 2013;13:226.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Dany M, Madi N, Nemer N, Beyrouthy M, Abdoun S, Usta J. Moringa oleifera: Natural leaf extract with potential anti-cancerous effect on A549 lung cancer cells. Lung Cancer 2012;77:S22.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Jung IL. Soluble Extract from Moringa oleifera Leaves with a New Anticancer Activity. Int J Mol Sci 12: 2014;670-80, 720.  Back to cited text no. 13
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

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