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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 117-119

Thai ethnopharmacological herbs for tuberculosis treatment: Pharmacoinformatics analysis for therapeutic property


1 TWS Medical Center, Bangkok, Thailand
2 Department of Biological Science, Joseph Ayo Babalola University, Ikeji-Arakeji, Nigeria, Ikeji-Arakeji, Nigeria; Department of Community Medicine, Dr. DY Patil University, Pune, Maharashtra, India

Date of Submission31-Jan-2019
Date of Decision09-Apr-2019
Date of Acceptance11-Apr-2019
Date of Web Publication17-Jun-2019

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Pathum Sookaromdee
TWS Medical Center, Bangkok
Thailand
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/bbrj.bbrj_32_19

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  Abstract 


Background: Tuberculosis is still an important infection at present. The use of antituberculosis drug is the standard therapeutic management. Due to the emerging drug resistance, it requires the new drug search. Additional to the modern medicine, the role of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) which has been existed in the endemic area of tuberculosis for centuries should be appraised. Methods: Here, the authors studied on the local CAM regimens in Thailand, a tropical country in Indochina, where tuberculosis is highly prevented, mentioned for the usefulness of treatment of tuberculosis. The data from famous classical Thai CAM centers are collected to find specific ethnopharmacological registered data on Thai herbs for the management of tuberculosis was further assessed. The comparative informatics appraisal with the public standard medical database is further done to verify any the existed usefulness of identified local herbs. Results: There are many identified local Thai CAM herbs, but there are onlytwo herbs that have proven for supportive evidence in the published literature for feasibility in using for treatment of tuberculosis. Conclusion: The identification of ethnopharmacological property of locally available CAM herbs might be useful for searching for a new natural product for the development of a new drug for tuberculosis treatment.

Keywords: Drug, ethnopharmacology, herb, tuberculosis


How to cite this article:
Sookaromdee P, Wiwanitkit V. Thai ethnopharmacological herbs for tuberculosis treatment: Pharmacoinformatics analysis for therapeutic property. Biomed Biotechnol Res J 2019;3:117-9

How to cite this URL:
Sookaromdee P, Wiwanitkit V. Thai ethnopharmacological herbs for tuberculosis treatment: Pharmacoinformatics analysis for therapeutic property. Biomed Biotechnol Res J [serial online] 2019 [cited 2019 Jul 20];3:117-9. Available from: http://www.bmbtrj.org/text.asp?2019/3/2/117/260478




  Introduction Top


Tuberculosis is a Mycobacterium infection caused by pathogenic species, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis is still an important infection at present. To manage the disease, effective drug treatment is required for successful tuberculosis control. The use of antituberculosis drug is the standard therapeutic management.[1],[2] Due to the emerging drug resistance, it requires the new drug search.[3]

Additional to the modern medicine, the role of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) which has been existed in the endemic area of tuberculosis for centuries should be appraised.[4] Indeed, the CAM for management of tuberculosis is the interesting issue. In China, there are some new evidence on the usefulness of some local Chinese herbs that might be used as new antituberculosis drugs.[5] In the present study, the authors specifically focus on the CAM, which is mentioned for usefulness of management of tuberculosis, existed in Indochina country.


  Methods Top


Here, the authors studied on the local CAM regimens in Thailand, a tropical country in Indochina, where tuberculosis is highly prevented, mentioned for usefulness of treatment of tuberculosis. The data from the famous classical Thai CAM centers are collected to find specific ethnopharmacological registered data on Thai herbs for the management of tuberculosis was further assessed. The comparative informatics appraisal with the public standard medical database is further done to verify any the existed usefulness of identified local herbs. The protocols for data searching and comparison are the same as previously published study.[6] This study does not deals with human, animal or clinical specimen and requires no ethical approval from ethical committee.


  Results Top


There are at least eight identified local Thai CAM herbs [Table 1], but there are only two herbs that have proven for supportive evidence in the published literature for feasibility in using for the treatment of tuberculosis.
Table 1: Identified local Thai herbs that are mentioned for antituberculosis property*, Herbs**

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  Discussion Top


Tuberculosis is an old classical infection that has been known for many centuries. The disease is still presently prevalent in several countries in Asia. The interesting issue is the local wisdom on the disease management existed in individual local setting. The CAM is accepted as local health wisdom for the management of endemic diseases. The new drug search based on the local CAM regimen is interesting. For example, the artemisinin, the effective antimalarial drug was first discovered due to the ethnopharmacological assessment of traditional Chinese CAM herb.[7] The appraisal of the CAM herbal regimens is useful for finding for new feasible drug alternative for the management of problematic health problems.

In the present study, the authors performed a pharmacoinformatics study to appraise on the ethnopharmacological CAM regimens for tuberculosis treatment. The technique is the standard technique as used in the previous publication.[1] Because the studied setting is the tropical Indochina where the tuberculosis has been important health problem for a long time, there are several identified local CAM regimens. The CAM herbs are usually the local plants. Nevertheless, from matching study with the existed evidence in the standard medical data based, only two herbs have the supporting evidence for their usefulness. First, Heliotropium indicum is the identified local CAM herb that has been recorded in the local Thai traditional CAM text, which has the similar proven effectiveness study from the remote country in Africa, Nigeria.[8] This herb is used as CAM for tuberculosis treatment and proven for no toxicity.[8] Indeed, H. indicum exists in the local Thai CAM texts in a specific region, Northern region of Thailand. This region has plenty of local Tai – Yai ethnic, the local ethnic in Northern region of Thailand that is the same group of those living in the Shan State of Myanmar where tuberculosis has its extremely high prevalence. The Tai Yam CAM is an interesting focus on the ethnopharmacological study at present.[9] According to the study by Khuankaew et al., there are at least 141 CAM herbs of the Tai Yai ethnics that are valuable for further researching for the medical usefulness by modern technique.

Second, Curcuma longa, is another herb that has supporting evidence. This herb is recorded in famous referencing Thai CAM text, Wat Pho CAM text, which is the standard reference for modern Thai traditional medicine and massage.[10] This herb is the same as used in Ayurveda regimen of India.[11] Antimycobacterial activity of C. longa is confirmed in the modern study.[11] Bai et al. found that Curcumin from C. longa could help enhance human macrophage control of tuberculosis.[12]

In fact, there are other herbs that have evidence for possible medical usefulness, Achyranthes aspera[13] and Plumeria obtusa.[14] These herbs are used in Zambia and Uganda for the management of several HIV-related conditions which include tuberculosis.[13],[14] Nevertheless, there is no specific evidence for tuberculosis. The identified herb should be further in-depth studies for the active ingredients. This might be the first step for searching for new effective antituberculosis drug.

Finally, it should note that the present study focuses only on Thai traditional herbs. The further studies on other classical tradition herbs (such as Chinese traditional herbs, Indian Ayurveda herbs, and traditional Islamic herbs) are recommended.


  Conclusion Top


The identification of ethnopharmacological property of locally available CAM herbs might be useful for development of a new antituberculosis drug.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Seaworth BJ, Griffith DE. Therapy of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. Microbiol Spectr 2017;5. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.TNMI7-0042-2017. [Epub ahead of print].  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Falzon D, Schünemann HJ, Harausz E, González-Angulo L, Lienhardt C, Jaramillo E, et al. World Health Organization treatment guidelines for drug-resistant tuberculosis, 2016 update. Eur Respir J 2017;49. pii: 1602308.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Tiberi S, Buchanan R, Caminero JA, Centis R, Arbex MA, Salazar M, et al. The challenge of the new tuberculosis drugs. Presse Med 2017;46:e41-51.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Walker LA, Budd S. UK: The current state of regulation of complementary and alternative medicine. Complement Ther Med 2002;10:8-13.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Jiang RH, Xu HB, Fu J. Outcomes of Chinese herb medicine for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Complement Ther Med 2015;23:544-54.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Wiwanitkit V. Thai ethnopharmacological herbs for diabetes treatment: Data collection and informatics tracing for therapeutic property. Diabetes Metab Syndr 2011;5:103-4.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Li Y, Wu YL. An over four millennium story behind qinghaosu (artemisinin) – A fantastic antimalarial drug from a traditional Chinese herb. Curr Med Chem 2003;10:2197-230.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Khuankaew S, Srithi K, Tiansawat P, Jampeetong A, Inta A, Wangpakapattanawong P. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by Tai Yai in Northern Thailand. J Ethnopharmacol 2014;151:829-38.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Owolabi MA, Oribayo OO, Ukpo GE, Mbaka GO, Akindehin OE. A 5-month toxicity study of the ethanol extract of the leaves of Heliotropium indicum in Sprague Dawley rats after oral administration. Nig Q J Hosp Med 2015;25:184-92.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Miyahara Y, Jitkritsadakul O, Sringean J, Aungkab N, Khongprasert S, Bhidayasiri R. Can therapeutic Thai massage improve upper limb muscle strength in Parkinson's disease? An objective randomized-controlled trial. J Tradit Complement Med 2018;8:261-6.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Gupta VK, Kaushik A, Chauhan DS, Ahirwar RK, Sharma S, Bisht D. Anti-mycobacterial activity of some medicinal plants used traditionally by tribes from Madhya Pradesh, India for treating tuberculosis related symptoms. J Ethnopharmacol 2018;227:113-20.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Bai X, Oberley-Deegan RE, Bai A, Ovrutsky AR, Kinney WH, Weaver M, et al. Curcumin enhances human macrophage control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Respirology 2016;21:951-7.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Chinsembu KC. Ethnobotanical study of plants used in the management of HIV/AIDS-related diseases in Livingstone, Southern Province, Zambia. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2016;2016:4238625.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Asiimwe S, Kamatenesi-Mugisha M, Namutebi A, Borg-Karlsson AK, Musiimenta P. Ethnobotanical study of nutri-medicinal plants used for the management of HIV/AIDS opportunistic ailments among the local communities of Western Uganda. J Ethnopharmacol 2013;150:639-48.  Back to cited text no. 14
    



 
 
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