|Year : 2019 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 120-125
Effect of ginseng against tuberculosis: A pathway interrelationship analysis
Won Sriwijitalai1, Viroj Wiwanitkit2
1 TWS Medical Center, Bangkok, Thailand
2 Department of Community Medicine Dr. D. Y. Patil University, Pune, Maharashtra, India; Department of Biological Science, Joseph Ayo Babalola University, Ikeji-Arakeji, Nigeria; Department of Tropical Medicine, Hainan Medical University, Haikou, China; Department of Medial Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Nis, Nis, Serbia
|Date of Submission||26-Mar-2019|
|Date of Decision||27-Apr-2019|
|Date of Acceptance||09-May-2019|
|Date of Web Publication||17-Jun-2019|
Dr. Won Sriwijitalai
TWS Medical Center, Bangkok
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: The role of traditional herb in the treatment of infectious diseases is very interesting. There are many researches on the effects of herbs on infectious pathogens. The research on tuberculosis, a common public health disorder, is very interesting. Methods: In this study, the authors performed a network pharmacology analysis to assess the common biological pathway for the pharmacological effect of ginseng and the pathophysiological process of tuberculosis. Results: According to the interrelationship analysis, the authors can identify the common pathway through vimentin, showing that ginseng is useful in the treatment of tuberculosis. Conclusion: Ginseng has been found to be useful for the treatment of tuberculosis.
Keywords: Ginseng, tuberculosis, vimentin
|How to cite this article:|
Sriwijitalai W, Wiwanitkit V. Effect of ginseng against tuberculosis: A pathway interrelationship analysis. Biomed Biotechnol Res J 2019;3:120-5
|How to cite this URL:|
Sriwijitalai W, Wiwanitkit V. Effect of ginseng against tuberculosis: A pathway interrelationship analysis. Biomed Biotechnol Res J [serial online] 2019 [cited 2019 Dec 8];3:120-5. Available from: http://www.bmbtrj.org/text.asp?2019/3/2/120/260487
| Introduction|| |
Illness is common to human beings. Humans were prone to diseases for a very long time, and treatment has been integral to health problem management for several millenniums. In the past, the local wisdom was widely used for health problem management. In ancient times, human usually use the locally available objects collected from surroundings for the management of diseases. This is the basic concept of traditional and alternative medicine.,,, Of interest, several local wisdoms still persist in the present day. It is usually accepted as a valuable health-care wisdom. At present, traditional medicine is accepted for its advantage and might be used as a complementary medical therapy for common medical problems.,
In traditional medicine, the concept of natural medicine is common.,, The use of natural products is common in several traditional medicine systems.,, The management of medical disorders by natural products is the basic concept in traditional medicine therapy. Focusing on traditional medicine management, medicinal herb is generally used. Several locally available plants have been well known and used by local people in different regions around the world as local herbs. Herbal therapy as a basic practice is used in traditional medicine system around the world. The role of traditional herb in the management of problematic infections is very interesting.
Several tropical infections including tuberculosis are presently studied on the usefulness of herbal therapy management., Herbal medicine is widely for the management of respiratory problems. Wagner et al. performed a meta-analysis on the available publications on herbal regimen for the management of cough and mentioned that “additional research, including other herbal treatments, is needed in this area.” Focusing on respiratory tract infection, Anheyer et al. concluded that there is a moderate evidence for the efficacy and safety in the treatment of respiratory tract infections by herbal regimens. At present, there are several reports on the usefulness of herbal regimens for therapeutic management of several diseases. For example, many herbs have proven their efficacy in the treatment of influenza.,,,,,, Wu et al. concluded that traditional medicine has been widely used for treating respiratory tract infections including influenza; however, there is a lack of good designed clinical study on this topic. Wu et al. suggested the use of advanced biomedical technology for systematical assessment of the efficacy of herbal regimens. In addition to influenza, traditional herbal regimens are also confirmed for their effectiveness in the treatment of pneumonia., Yang et al. reported that herbs might help increase total effective rate and improve symptoms and signs of pneumonia.
The usefulness of herbal therapy are presently studied on several tropical infections including tuberculosis. Of several chronic respiratory infections, tuberculosis is an important chronic infection that can result in chronic respiratory tract disorders. The use of herbs in the management of tuberculosis is very interesting. The effectiveness of herbal regimen is mentioned in the literature. For tuberculosis treatment, Jiang et al. performed a meta-analysis and concluded that using herbal regimen as a combined supplementary therapy to standard chemotherapy by antituberculosis drug was useful. Samal retrospectively reviewed on ayurvedic management of pulmonary tuberculosis and noted that “Being a global public health crisis, it is highly recommended to carry out clinical trials on TB patients using Ayurvedic drugs and therapeutic regimens.” In addition to treatment purpose, herbal regimen is also proposed as a possible useful preventive regimen against the adverse effects of common modern antituberculosis drugs. Nevertheless, at present, information on the usefulness of the herbal regimens for treatment or prevention in tuberculosis is very limited. As noted by Liu et al., modern studies on the effect of drugs or herbs to treat tuberculosis or prevent liver damage in people on tuberculosis treatment are necessary.
In this short article, the authors used a network pharmacology analysis to determine the common biological pathway for pharmacological effect of ginseng, a well-known traditional herb in Asia [Figure 1], and pathophysiological process of tuberculosis, an important communicable disease. From interrelationship analysis, a common pathway through vimentin node was identified. Hence, ginseng is promised for its advantage as additional therapy for tuberculosis.
| Methods|| |
This study is a clinical informatics in silico investigation and does not deal with any patient, animal, or clinical specimen, and hence, it requires no written informed consent or ethical committee approval. The biological process network analysis is done. Based on network pharmacology principle,,,,,,, the effect of Panax ginseng is studied for its interrelationship with the pathophysiological process of tuberculosis. In this study, P. ginseng is the reference standard of ginseng herb,,,,, and the main active chemical compound is ginsenoside (chemical formula C42H72O14).,,,,, This work requires no ethical approval from ethical committee since it does not deal with human or animal.
Information on the biological processes of pharmacological actions of ginseng and pathophysiological action of tuberculosis was obtained from direct database searching using international databases such as PubMed (www.pubmed.com) and Scopus (www.scopus.com).
After obtaining the searched information, the derived biological processes of both pharmacological actions of ginseng and pathophysiological actions of tuberculosis were reassessed and a common pathway was searched. Then, the common node was identified and used for further interrelationship network construction.
| Results|| |
Based on the assessment, a common node between pharmacological action of ginseng and pathophysiological action of tuberculosis was successfully identified at vimentin. The final interrelationship network from interrelationship analysis is presented in [Figure 2].
|Figure 2: Interrelationship network showing the interrelationship between pharmacological action of ginseng and pathophysiological action of tuberculosis|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
Clinical pharmacology network analysis is a new applied clinical informatics technique that is applicable for the assessment of effects of traditional herbal regimens.,,
Based on the informatics analysis starting from pathway searching, identifying common node, rearrangement, and final creation of the interrelationship network regarding a herbal regimen interrelated with a disease can be systematically done.,, The network informatics analysis is a standard technique which has been used in many previous publications on the pathophysiology of important medical problems., Focusing on the use of network pharmacology analysis on herbal regimen research, there are some good examples of in silico studies. Joob and Wiwanitkit recently performed a bioinformatics network analysis to analyze the result from a combination of ginseng and arginine regimen. They performed an ontology study to assess the ginseng–arginine combination. Joob and Wiwanitkit found that “there is no new addition effect but some concurrent effects between ginseng and arginine can be identified.” Ngam et al. performed another similar study to assess the combination of ginseng and gingko regimens. Ngam et al. concluded that there was a synergistic effect demonstrated by ontology study. Ngam et al. also performed another ontology study on another combination of ginseng and lingzhi. Ngam et al. concluded that there was a synergistic neuroprotective effect by combining ginseng and lingzhi.
In this short article, the authors preliminarily report a study on the pharmacological advantage of ginseng in the management of tuberculosis. The studied herb in this work is a well-known Asian herb. Ginseng has been used in traditional medicine in Asia for many thousands of years. Ginseng is a common herb seen in several Chinese and Korean medicinal recipes. Indeed, ginseng is proposed for several clinical advantages. As noted by Sul, “Starting from the late 17th century doctors prescribed ginseng to cure many different kinds of ailments and disease such as fatigue, general lethargy, fever, torpidity, trembling in the joints, nervous disorder, laughing and crying hysteria, scurvy, spermatic vessel infection, jaundice, leprosy, dry gripes and constipation, strangury, yellow fever, dysentery, infertility and addictions of alcohol, opium and tobacco, etc.” Regarding infection management, there are many researches on the advantages of ginseng.,,,,,,, Immunomodulation is the important property of ginseng that is proposed for possible usefulness in the management of infection.,,,,,,, In fact, ginseng has a well-known bactericidal activity. In a recent report, the minimum inhibitory concentration was equal to 6.25 mg/mL.
In the management of respiratory tract infection, ginseng is widely studied on the effectiveness of using for influenza therapy.,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, Almost all studies show that ginseng is effective and useful in influenza therapy.,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, In the present report, the authors focus on using ginseng for the treatment of tuberculosis. In fact, there are many reports on clinical observations of ginseng's effect against tuberculosis., Chang et al. recently assessed the effects of P. ginseng extracts on the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and noticed the inhibitory effect of ginseng. Jiang et al. observed that ginseng combined with chemotherapy appeared to be associated with a low incidence of adverse effects for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment.
According to this study, there is a common node between pharmacological process of ginseng and pathophysiological process of tuberculosis at vimentin. Ginseng has its pharmacological effect in the suppression of vimentin expression whereas vimentin expression is an important pathophysiological process in macrophage infection of M. tuberculosis pathogen., In fact, macrophage infection in tuberculosis is considered an important pathology in tuberculosis. Xu et al. noted that “As the first line of immune defense for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, macrophages also provide a major habitat for Mycobacterium tuberculosis to reside in the host for years.” Immunoevasion and immunosuppression of the macrophage by M. tuberculosis is an observable process during infection. Hmama et al. noted that the mycobacterial pathogen could subvert the macrophage's physiological mechanisms of intracellular killing and antigen presentation. This pathophysiological process will result in the development of tuberculosis disease. Basically, vimentin is an intermediate filament protein posing an important role in stabilizing intracellular architecture. It is also important for normal macrophage physiology.,,,, Vimentin is required for proper pathogenic bacterial killing and production of reactive oxygen species which will be further used for bactericidal process. Mak and Brüggemann noted that vimentin has an important role in “pathogen-binding on the cell surface and subsequent bacterial invasion and the interaction of cytosolic vimentin and intracellular pathogens with regards to innate immune signaling.” Change in vimentin expression will be problematic and might increase the chance of bacterial infection including tuberculosis. For tuberculosis, the role of vimentin is reported in several recent publications.,,,,, Garg et al. noted that vimentin expressed on M. tuberculosis-infected human monocytes was involved in binding to the NKp46 receptor, which is an underlying pathological process of macrophage infection in tuberculosis. Furthermore, the role of vimentin is also reported in other pathogenic mycobacterial diseases such as leprosy,, and Mycobacterium avium infection., The suppression of vimentin expression is related to the reduced macrophage infection in tuberculosis, which is useful in tuberculosis management., Comparing to the previous studies on ginseng and tuberculosis, the present study first demonstrates the possible mechanism that ginseng might be useful in the management of tuberculosis [Table 1]. Further researches focusing on using ginseng as an herbal supplementary treatment for tuberculosis are recommended. Finally, there should also be a note on the possible adverse effect of ginseng. Similar to any medicine, ginseng might also induce anaphylaxis, but it is extremely rare. In a recent summarization on clinical trials by Shergis et al., only minor adverse effects were observed in patients receiving ginseng.
|Table 1: Summary on the importance of the study results comparing knowledge from previous studies|
Click here to view
| Conclusion|| |
Here, pharmacological process of ginseng and pathophysiological process of tuberculosis share a common pathway through vimentin. Ginseng can promote the downregulation of vimentin which can result in decreased macrophage infection in tuberculosis. It can be concluded that ginseng is useful in additional therapy for tuberculosis.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Messer E. Systematic and medicinal reasoning in Mitla folk botany. J Ethnopharmacol 1991;33:107-28.
Xiao HT, Zhong L, Tsang SW, Lin ZS, Bian ZX. Traditional Chinese medicine formulas for irritable bowel syndrome: From ancient wisdoms to scientific understandings. Am J Chin Med 2015;43:1-23.
Jaiswal YS, Williams LL. A glimpse of Ayurveda – The forgotten history and principles of Indian traditional medicine. J Tradit Complement Med 2017;7:50-3.
Nimrouzi M, Zare M. Principles of nutrition in Islamic and traditional Persian medicine. J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med 2014;19:267-70.
Akaberi M, Sobhani Z, Javadi B, Sahebkar A, Emami SA. Therapeutic effects of Aloe
spp. in traditional and modern medicine: A review. Biomed Pharmacother 2016;84:759-72.
Yuan H, Ma Q, Ye L, Piao G. The traditional medicine and modern medicine from natural products. Molecules 2016;21. pii: E559.
Wang J, Gao L, Lee YM, Kalesh KA, Ong YS, Lim J, et al.
Target identification of natural and traditional medicines with quantitative chemical proteomics approaches. Pharmacol Ther 2016;162:10-22.
Ngo LT, Okogun JI, Folk WR. 21st
century natural product research and drug development and traditional medicines. Nat Prod Rep 2013;30:584-92.
Ung CO, Harnett J, Hu H. Community pharmacist's responsibilities with regards to traditional medicine/complementary medicine products: A systematic literature review. Res Social Adm Pharm 2017;13:686-716.
Chao J, Dai Y, Verpoorte R, Lam W, Cheng YC, Pao LH, et al.
Major achievements of evidence-based traditional Chinese medicine in treating major diseases. Biochem Pharmacol 2017;139:94-104.
Wusiman A, Abula S, Shayibuzhati M, Zhang X. Traditional Uyghur medicine: Concepts, historical perspective, and modernization. Altern Ther Health Med 2017;23:34-41.
Diop EA, Queiroz EF, Kicka S, Rudaz S, Diop T, Soldati T, et al.
Survey on medicinal plants traditionally used in Senegal for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) and assessment of their antimycobacterial activity. J Ethnopharmacol 2018;216:71-8.
Jiang RH, Xu HB, Fu J. Outcomes of Chinese herb medicine for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Complement Ther Med 2015;23:544-54.
Wagner L, Cramer H, Klose P, Lauche R, Gass F, Dobos G, et al.
Herbal medicine for cough: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Forsch Komplementmed 2015;22:359-68.
Anheyer D, Cramer H, Lauche R, Saha FJ, Dobos G. Herbal medicine in children with respiratory tract infection: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Acad Pediatr 2018;18:8-19.
Jiang L, Deng L, Wu T. Chinese medicinal herbs for influenza. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013;3:CD004559.
Wang X, Liu Z. Prevention and treatment of viral respiratory infections by traditional Chinese herbs. Chin Med J (Engl) 2014;127:1344-50.
Chen W, Lim CE, Kang HJ, Liu J. Chinese herbal medicines for the treatment of type A H1N1 influenza: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. PLoS One 2011;6:e28093.
Chen XY, Wu TX, Liu GJ, Wang Q, Zheng J, Wei J, et al
. Chinese medicinal herbs for influenza. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007; 4:CD004559.
Chen X, Wu T, Liu G. Chinese medicinal herbs for influenza: A systematic review. J Altern Complement Med 2006;12:171-80.
Wang X, Jia W, Zhao A, Wang X. Anti-influenza agents from plants and traditional Chinese medicine. Phytother Res 2006;20:335-41.
Chen XY, Wu TX, Liu GJ, Wang Q, Zheng J, Wei J, et al
. Chinese medicinal herbs for influenza. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005; 1:CD004559.
Wu T, Yang X, Zeng X, Poole P. Traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of acute respiratory tract infections. Respir Med 2008;102:1093-8.
Yang Q, Wu D, Mao W, Liu X, Bao K, Lin Q, et al.
Chinese medicinal herbs for childhood pneumonia: A systematic review of effectiveness and safety. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013;2013:203845.
Lin LL, Shan JJ, Xie T, Xu JY, Shen CS, Di LQ, et al.
Application of traditional Chinese medical herbs in prevention and treatment of respiratory syncytial virus. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2016;2016:6082729.
Samal J. Ayurvedic management of pulmonary tuberculosis: A systematic review. J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2016;5:86-91.
Liu Q, Garner P, Wang Y, Huang B, Smith H. Drugs and herbs given to prevent hepatotoxicity of tuberculosis therapy: Systematic review of ingredients and evaluation studies. BMC Public Health 2008;8:365.
Kibble M, Saarinen N, Tang J, Wennerberg K, Mäkelä S, Aittokallio T. Network pharmacology applications to map the unexplored target space and therapeutic potential of natural products. Nat Prod Rep 2015;32:1249-66.
Boezio B, Audouze K, Ducrot P, Taboureau O. Network-based approaches in pharmacology. Mol Inform. 2017;36. doi: 10.1002/minf.201700048. Epub 2017 Jul 10.
Li S, Zhang B. Traditional Chinese medicine network pharmacology: Theory, methodology and application. Chin J Nat Med 2013;11:110-20.
Danhof M. Systems pharmacology – Towards the modeling of network interactions. Eur J Pharm Sci 2016;94:4-14.
Li P, Fu Y, Wang Y. Network based approach to drug discovery: A mini review. Mini Rev Med Chem 2015;15:687-95.
Hopkins AL. Network pharmacology: The next paradigm in drug discovery. Nat Chem Biol 2008;4:682-90.
Ye H, Wei J, Tang K, Feuers R, Hong H. Drug repositioning through network pharmacology. Curr Top Med Chem 2016;16:3646-56.
Mancuso C, Santangelo R. Panax ginseng
and Panax quinquefolius
: From pharmacology to toxicology. Food Chem Toxicol 2017;107:362-72.
Kiefer D, Pantuso T. Panax ginseng
. Am Fam Physician 2003;68:1539-42.
Kim JH. Pharmacological and medical applications of Panax ginseng
and ginsenosides: A review for use in cardiovascular diseases. J Ginseng Res 2018;42:264-9.
Xu W, Choi HK, Huang L. State of Panax ginseng
research: A global analysis. Molecules 2017;22. pii: E1518.
Shergis JL, Zhang AL, Zhou W, Xue CC. Panax ginseng
in randomised controlled trials: A systematic review. Phytother Res 2013;27:949-65.
Tam DN, Truong DH, Nguyen TT, Quynh LN, Tran L, Nguyen HD, et al.
Ginsenoside Rh1: A systematic review of its pharmacological properties. Planta Med 2018;84:139-52.
Yang XD, Yang YY, Ouyang DS, Yang GP. A review of biotransformation and pharmacology of ginsenoside compound K. Fitoterapia 2015;100:208-20.
Lim TG, Lee CC, Dong Z, Lee KW. Ginsenosides and their metabolites: A review of their pharmacological activities in the skin. Arch Dermatol Res 2015;307:397-403.
Elshafay A, Tinh NX, Salman S, Shaheen YS, Othman EB, Elhady MT, et al.
Ginsenoside Rk1 bioactivity: A systematic review. PeerJ 2017;5:e3993.
Kim YJ, Zhang D, Yang DC. Biosynthesis and biotechnological production of ginsenosides. Biotechnol Adv 2015;33:717-35.
Zheng M, Xin Y, Li Y, Xu F, Xi X, Guo H, et al.
Ginsenosides: A potential neuroprotective agent. Biomed Res Int 2018;2018:8174345.
Yuan H, Ma Q, Cui H, Liu G, Zhao X, Li W, et al.
How can synergism of traditional medicines benefit from network pharmacology? Molecules 2017;22. pii: E1135.
Hao da C, Xiao PG. Network pharmacology: A Rosetta stone for traditional Chinese medicine. Drug Dev Res 2014;75:299-312.
Wiwanitkit V. Cancer immunomics and application of 'omics' for cancer management. Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2007;3:807-12.
Yasri S, Wiwanitkit V. Protein tyrosine phosphatase, opisthorchiasis and dengue: A proteomics interrelationship. J Vector Borne Dis 2018;55:245.
] [Full text]
Joob B, Wiwanitkit V. Combination between ginseng and arginine regimen: Is there any synergistic effect? J Med Trop 2016;18:18-21. [Full text]
Ngam WH, Jung KC, Ferius M. Combination between ginseng and gingko regimen: Synergistic effect demonstrated by ontology study. Adv Trop Med Public Health Int 2015;5:1-4.
Ngam WH, Jung KC, Ferius M. Synergistic neuroprotective effect from combining ginseng and lingzhi. Diagn Ther Study 2014;3:31-2.
Sul H. The medicinal usage and restriction of ginseng in Britain and America, 1660-1900. Uisahak 2017;26:503-44.
Vogler BK, Pittler MH, Ernst E. The efficacy of ginseng. A systematic review of randomised clinical trials. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1999;55:567-75.
Coleman CI, Hebert JH, Reddy P. The effects of Panax ginseng
on quality of life. J Clin Pharm Ther 2003;28:5-15.
Im K, Kim J, Min H. Ginseng, the natural effectual antiviral: Protective effects of Korean red ginseng against viral infection. J Ginseng Res 2016;40:309-14.
Palisin TE, Stacy JJ. Ginseng: Is it in the root? Curr Sports Med Rep 2006;5:210-4.
Block KI, Mead MN. Immune system effects of Echinacea
, Ginseng, and Astragalus
: A review. Integr Cancer Ther 2003;2:247-67.
Kachur K, Suntres ZE. The antimicrobial properties of ginseng and ginseng extracts. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2016;14:81-94.
Kang S, Min H. Ginseng, the 'immunity boost': The effects of Panax ginseng
on immune system. J Ginseng Res 2012;36:354-68.
Wu H, Høiby N, Yang L, Givskov M, Song Z. Effects of radix ginseng on microbial infections: A narrative review. J Tradit Chin Med 2014;34:227-33.
Na S, Kim JH, Rhee YK, Oh SW. Enhancing the antimicrobial activity of ginseng against Bacillus cereus
and Staphylococcus aureus
by heat treatment. Food Sci Biotechnol 2018;27:203-10.
Mousa HA. Prevention and treatment of influenza, influenza-like illness, and common cold by herbal, complementary, and natural therapies. J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med 2017;22:166-74.
Kim H, Jang M, Kim Y, Choi J, Jeon J, Kim J, et al.
Red ginseng and Vitamin C increase immune cell activity and decrease lung inflammation induced by influenza A virus/H1N1 infection. J Pharm Pharmacol 2016;68:406-20.
Wang Y, Jung YJ, Kim KH, Kwon Y, Kim YJ, Zhang Z, et al.
Antiviral activity of fermented ginseng extracts against a broad range of influenza viruses. Viruses 2018;10. pii: E471.
Lee JS, Hwang HS, Ko EJ, Lee YN, Kwon YM, Kim MC, et al.
Immunomodulatory activity of red ginseng against influenza A virus infection. Nutrients 2014;6:517-29.
Dong W, Farooqui A, Leon AJ, Kelvin DJ. Inhibition of influenza A virus infection by ginsenosides. PLoS One 2017;12:e0171936.
Abdullahi AY, Kallon S, Yu X, Zhang Y, Li G. Vaccination with Astragalus
and ginseng polysaccharides improves immune response of chickens against H5N1 avian influenza virus. Biomed Res Int 2016;2016:1510264.
Wiwanitkit V. Red ginseng and H5N1 influenza infection. J Ginseng Res 2014;38:226.
Park EH, Yum J, Ku KB, Kim HM, Kang YM, Kim JC, et al.
Red ginseng-containing diet helps to protect mice and ferrets from the lethal infection by highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus. J Ginseng Res 2014;38:40-6.
Yu J, Shi FS, Hu S. Improved immune responses to a bivalent vaccine of Newcastle disease and avian influenza in chickens by ginseng stem-leaf saponins. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2015;167:147-55.
Lee HH, Park H, Sung GH, Lee K, Lee T, Lee I, et al.
Anti-influenza effect of Cordyceps militaris
through immunomodulation in a DBA/2 mouse model. J Microbiol 2014;52:696-701.
Yin SY, Kim HJ, Kim HJ. Protective effect of dietary xylitol on influenza A virus infection. PLoS One 2014;9:e84633.
Nahas R, Balla A. Complementary and alternative medicine for prevention and treatment of the common cold. Can Fam Physician 2011;57:31-6.
Choi JG, Jin YH, Lee H, Oh TW, Yim NH, Cho WK, et al.
Protective effect of Panax notoginseng
root water extract against influenza A virus infection by enhancing antiviral interferon-mediated immune responses and natural killer cell activity. Front Immunol 2017;8:1542.
Yin SY, Kim HJ, Kim HJ. A comparative study of the effects of whole red ginseng extract and polysaccharide and saponin fractions on influenza A (H1N1) virus infection. Biol Pharm Bull 2013;36:1002-7.
Ha KC, Kim MG, Oh MR, Choi EK, Back HI, Kim SY, et al.
Aplacebo-controlled trial of Korean red ginseng extract for preventing influenza-like illness in healthy adults. BMC Complement Altern Med 2012;12:10.
Choi SH, Yang KJ, Lee DS. Effects of complementary combination therapy of Korean red ginseng and antiviral agents in chronic hepatitis B. J Altern Complement Med 2016;22:964-9.
Yoo DG, Kim MC, Park MK, Song JM, Quan FS, Park KM, et al.
Protective effect of Korean red ginseng extract on the infections by H1N1 and H3N2 influenza viruses in mice. J Med Food 2012;15:855-62.
Kaneko H, Nakanishi K. Proof of the mysterious efficacy of ginseng: Basic and clinical trials: Clinical effects of medical ginseng, Korean red ginseng: Specifically, its anti-stress action for prevention of disease. J Pharmacol Sci 2004;95:158-62.
Xu ML, Kim HJ, Choi YR, Kim HJ. Intake of Korean red ginseng extract and saponin enhances the protection conferred by vaccination with inactivated influenza a virus. J Ginseng Res 2012;36:396-402.
Kwok HH, Poon PY, Fok SP, Ying-Kit Yue P, Mak NK, Chan MC, et al.
Anti-inflammatory effects of indirubin derivatives on influenza A virus-infected human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells. Sci Rep 2016;6:18941.
Yoo DG, Kim MC, Park MK, Park KM, Quan FS, Song JM, et al.
Protective effect of ginseng polysaccharides on influenza viral infection. PLoS One 2012;7:e33678.
Quan FS, Compans RW, Cho YK, Kang SM. Ginseng and Salviae herbs play a role as immune activators and modulate immune responses during influenza virus infection. Vaccine 2007;25:272-82.
Hu Z, Yang X, Ho PC, Chan SY, Heng PW, Chan E, et al
. Herb-drug interactions: A literature review. Drugs 2005;65:1239-82.
Scaglione F, Cattaneo G, Alessandria M, Cogo R. Efficacy and safety of the standardised ginseng extract G115 for potentiating vaccination against the influenza syndrome and protection against the common cold [corrected]. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1996;22:65-72.
Chang MW, Tasaka H, Kuwabara M, Watanabe T, Matsuo Y. Effects of Panax ginseng
extracts on the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
H37Rv. Hiroshima J Med Sci 1979;28:115-8.
Cai JP, Wu YJ, Li C, Feng MY, Shi QT, Li R, et al. Panax ginseng
polysaccharide suppresses metastasis via modulating twist expression in gastric cancer. Int J Biol Macromol 2013;57:22-5.
Mahesh PP, Retnakumar RJ, Mundayoor S. Downregulation of vimentin in macrophages infected with live Mycobacterium tuberculosis
is mediated by reactive oxygen species. Sci Rep 2016;6:21526.
Fujita J, Ohtsuki Y, Suemitsu I, Yamadori I, Shigeto E, Shiode M, et al.
Immunohistochemical distribution of epithelioid cell, myofibroblast, and transforming growth factor-beta1 in the granuloma caused by Mycobacterium avium
intracellulare complex pulmonary infection. Microbiol Immunol 2002;46:67-74.
Xu G, Wang J, Gao GF, Liu CH. Insights into battles between Mycobacterium tuberculosis
and macrophages. Protein Cell 2014;5:728-36.
Hmama Z, Peña-Díaz S, Joseph S, Av-Gay Y. Immunoevasion and immunosuppression of the macrophage by Mycobacterium tuberculosis
. Immunol Rev 2015;264:220-32.
Chernoivanenko IS, Minin AA, Minin AA. Role of vimentin in cell migration. Ontogenez 2013;44:186-202.
Rose ML. Role of anti-vimentin antibodies in allograft rejection. Hum Immunol 2013;74:1459-62.
Satelli A, Li S. Vimentin in cancer and its potential as a molecular target for cancer therapy. Cell Mol Life Sci 2011;68:3033-46.
Shi AM, Tao ZQ, Li R, Wang YQ, Wang X, Zhao J. Vimentin and post-translational modifications in cell motility during cancer – A review. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2016;20:2603-6.
Musaelyan A, Lapin S, Nazarov V, Tkachenko O, Gilburd B, Mazing A, et al.
Vimentin as antigenic target in autoimmunity: A comprehensive review. Autoimmun Rev 2018;17:926-34.
Mor-Vaknin N, Legendre M, Yu Y, Serezani CH, Garg SK, Jatzek A, et al.
Murine colitis is mediated by vimentin. Sci Rep 2013;3:1045.
Mak TN, Brüggemann H. Vimentin in bacterial infections. Cells 2016;5. pii: E18.
Garg A, Barnes PF, Porgador A, Roy S, Wu S, Nanda JS, et al.
Vimentin expressed on Mycobacterium tuberculosis
-infected human monocytes is involved in binding to the NKp46 receptor. J Immunol 2006;177:6192-8.
Lima I, Oliveira RC, Atta A, Marchi S, Barbosa L, Reis E, et al.
Antibodies to citrullinated peptides in tuberculosis. Clin Rheumatol 2013;32:685-7.
Gupta PK, Tripathi D, Kulkarni S, Rajan MG. Mycobacterium tuberculosis
H37Rv infected THP-1 cells induce epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) in lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line (A549). Cell Immunol 2016;300:33-40.
Eberhardt C, Thillai M, Parker R, Siddiqui N, Potiphar L, Goldin R, et al.
Proteomic analysis of Kveim reagent identifies targets of cellular immunity in sarcoidosis. PLoS One 2017;12:e0170285.
Kaarteenaho-Wiik R, Sademies O, Pääkkö P, Risteli J, Soini Y. Extracellular matrix proteins and myofibroblasts in granulomas of sarcoidosis, atypical mycobacteriosis, and tuberculosis of the lung. Hum Pathol 2007;38:147-53.
Seifi-Najmi M, Hajivalili M, Safaralizadeh R, Sadreddini S, Esmaeili S, Razavi R, et al.
SiRNA/DOX loaded chitosan based nanoparticles: Development, characterization and in vitro
evaluation on A549 lung cancer cell line. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 2016;62:87-94.
Canuto MJ, Yacoub CR, Trindade MA, Avancini J, Pagliari C, Sotto MN. Histoid leprosy: Clinical and histopathological analysis of patients in follow-up in university clinical hospital of endemic country. Int J Dermatol 2018;57:707-12.
Da Costa DA, Enokihara MM, Nonogaki S, Maeda SM, Porro AM, Tomimori J. Wade histoid leprosy: Histological and immunohistochemical analysis. Lepr Rev 2013;84:176-85.
Frey FL, Gottlieb AB, Levis WR. A patient with lepromatous leprosy and anticytoskeletal antibodies. J Am Acad Dermatol 1988;18:1179-84.
Babrak L, Danelishvili L, Rose SJ, Kornberg T, Bermudez LE. The environment of “Mycobacterium avium
subsp. hominissuis” microaggregates induces synthesis of small proteins associated with efficient infection of respiratory epithelial cells. Infect Immun 2015;83:625-36.
Wiwanitkit V, Taungjaruwinai W. A case report of suspect ginseng allergy. MedGenMed 2004;6:9.
[Figure 1], [Figure 2]