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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 217-227

Challenges of bovine tuberculosis control and genetic distribution in Africa


1 Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon; Department of Bacteriology Department, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana
2 Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon
3 Department of Bacteriology Department, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana
4 Department of Surgery, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon
5 Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Buea, Buea; Department of Laboratory of Endocrinology and Radioelements, Medical Research Centre, Institute of Medical Research and Studies on Medicinal Plants, Yaounde, Cameroon
6 Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon
7 Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Medicine, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Benjamin David Thumamo Pokam
Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Buea, P.O.Box, 63 Buea

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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/bbrj.bbrj_110_19

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Bovine tuberculosis (BTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis(M. bovis); a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), is a well-known zoonotic disease, which affects mainly cattle. Control programs have either nearly or completely eliminated this disease from domesticated animals in many developed countries. Its persistence in developing countries results from interactions between people, livestock transhumance, and wildlife. In addition, deficiencies in preventive and/or control measures, poor sanitation, veterinary and slaughterhouse services, and lack of political measures have been blamed. The proportion of human TB cases caused by M. bovis is most likely underestimated since tests to distinguish between MTBC are seldom performed. Molecular techniques, especially spoligotyping, have helped to link human and animal transmission. Several challenges in the control of M. bovis TB in Africa have been identified, and its eradication efforts require a holistic approach. This review explores the challenges in the control efforts of BTB in Africa, as well as the impact of the genotyping evolution and distribution of M. bovis in the continent and strategies to improve its control.


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