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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 31-33

Tuberculosis and liver fluke infection: An expressional analysis for common antioxidative pathway


1 26 Medical Center, Bangkok, Thailand
2 Department of Community Medicine, Dr DY Patil University, Pune, Maharashtra, India

Date of Submission05-Aug-2019
Date of Acceptance31-Aug-2019
Date of Web Publication17-Mar-2020

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Rujittika Mungmunpuntipantip
26 Medical Center, Bangkok
Thailand
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/bbrj.bbrj_113_19

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  Abstract 


Background: Tuberculosis is a common medical problem seen in several areas of the world including Indochina. The concurrence of tuberculosis with other tropical infections is possible. For those infections, the role of oxidative pathway system is widely proposed. Here, the authors study on the common antioxidative pathway of tuberculosis and liver fluke infection. Materials and Methods: This work is a bioinformatic expressional analysis. A common pathway analysis with interrelationship identification is done to on expressional antioxidative pathways of tuberculosis and liver fluke infection. Results: The common pathway can be identified with the linkage node at glutathione. Each infection contributes to increased susceptibility to each other. Conclusion: Based on the identified common antioxidative pathway, the concurrent management of both diseases at the endemic area of both liver fluke and tuberculosis infections is needed.

Keywords: Antioxidative, concurrence, expression, liver fluke, pathway, tuberculosis


How to cite this article:
Mungmunpuntipantip R, Wiwanitkit V. Tuberculosis and liver fluke infection: An expressional analysis for common antioxidative pathway. Biomed Biotechnol Res J 2020;4:31-3

How to cite this URL:
Mungmunpuntipantip R, Wiwanitkit V. Tuberculosis and liver fluke infection: An expressional analysis for common antioxidative pathway. Biomed Biotechnol Res J [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Jul 8];4:31-3. Available from: http://www.bmbtrj.org/text.asp?2020/4/1/31/280856




  Introduction Top


Tuberculosis is a common infection that is an important problem that can result in both pulmonary and extrapulmonary disorders. Worldwide, this infection still exists in many settings, especially those in remote poor areas. At present, tuberculosis infection becomes an important global public health consideration.[1] In general, tuberculosis usually exists in developing countries. At the same endemic area in developing countries, there are usually other common endemic infections.

It is no doubt that tuberculosis might occur with other medical problems. The concurrence between tuberculosis and other tropical infections is possible.[2],[3],[4] For those infections, the role of oxidative pathway system is widely proposed. For example, in Southeast Asia, where tuberculosis is very common, there are many endemic infections. An interesting infection that is highly endemic at the same area with the endemic area of tuberculosis is the liver fluke infection. In the present report, the authors study on the common antioxidative pathway of tuberculosis and liver fluke infection.


  Materials and Methods Top


The present study is a bioinformatic study based on the standard expressional pathway analysis. The present study focuses on the antioxidative process of both liver fluke and tuberculosis infections. The expressional analysis in the present study is based on the standard bioinformatic technique as published in the previous references.[5],[6],[7] Briefly, the international database searching was firstly done to identify the biological pathways regarding antioxidative system in tuberculosis and thalassemia. The derived pathways were collected, and the common pathway seen in both tuberculosis and thalassemia was identified. Finally, the interrelationship analysis based on the identified common pathway between tuberculosis and thalassemia was done to derive the final common pathway regarding antioxidative system for both disorders. Since the work is a bioinformatic study and does not directly deal with human or animal subjects, the study does not require ethical committee approval.


  Results Top


Based on the present informatic analysis, database data mining was completely done and there were identified evidence on the common role of antioxidative process in both liver fluke and tuberculosis infections.[8],[9] The identified common pathway with a specific linkage node at “glutathione” could be derived.[8],[9] An additional interrelationship analysis can give the final common pathway regarding antioxidative system for both infections as presented in [Figure 1]. In details, the impaired oxidative system is observable in the pathological process of both diseases. The impaired antioxidative system representing by decreased glutathione level is the common starting pathogenesis point. The decreasing of glutathione will further result in increased susceptibility to both liver fluke and tuberculosis infections.
Figure 1: The final common pathway regarding antioxidative system linking between liver fluke and tuberculosis infections

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  Discussion Top


Antioxidative pathway system is an important biological process in human that is widely mentioned for its roles in the pathophysiology of many infections.[10] Of interest, the role in tuberculosis is also mentioned. As noted by Cao et al., immune-enhancing effects and antimycobacterial were related to the antioxidative pathway system through glutathione.[8] The pathogenesis and pharmacological response of tuberculosis are proposed to relate to the glutathione system.[8],[11] The role of glutathione through NK cell is well demonstrated.[12] Nevertheless, the defect of antioxidative process is common in patients with tuberculosis. The antioxidative status of tuberculosis patient is usually low, and the magnitude of decreasing antioxidative process is increased with severity of the disease.[13] Golubović et al. concluded that oxidative stress is a common pathological problem in tuberculosis to be managed.

Regarding liver fluke infection, there are also some reports on the antioxidative pathway system. Perina et al. showed that glutathione plays an important role in the pathophysiology of liver fluke infection.[9] Depletion of glutathione increased risk of infection as well as liver pathology due to liver fluke infection.[9] Live fibrosis is also strongly related to the decreasing glutathione level.[9] Since there is an epidemiological report showing that tuberculosis is extremely high prevalent in the same area with liver fluke infection in Indochina, it is interesting to trace whether there is any expressional pathway interrelationship. It is hypothesized that there might be a linkage through antioxidative system between both liver fluke and tuberculosis infections. The present study is aimed at finding a possible relationship.

In the present report, the authors perform a bioinformatic expressional analysis and can successfully determine the specific common pathway through glutathione linkage node between liver fluke and tuberculosis infections. The increased risk for another infection can be detected if there is already one infection. Indeed, this result is concordant with the previous report that combined pathology due to both diseases is observable with increased severity.[14] This finding might be a clue to clarify the observed epidemiological observation on the extremely high prevalence of tuberculosis in the same area with liver fluke infection in Indochina. Further research to identify the pathophysiology in case with coinfection is recommended. Nevertheless, the present study can also show a possible role of antioxidative treatment for the management of both tuberculosis and liver fluke infections. In a recent publication from Russia, the usefulness of alternative complementary of antioxidative treatment for patients with tuberculosis was reported.[15] Further studies on this specific issue are also recommended.


  Conclusion Top


Based on the identified common antioxidative pathway, the concurrent management of both diseases at the endemic area of both liver fluke and tuberculosis infections is needed. For example, concomitant screening for both diseases in the same endemic area is recommended.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Pai M, Behr MA, Dowdy D, Dheda K, Divangahi M, Boehme CC, et al. Tuberculosis. Nat Rev Dis Primers 2016;2:16076.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Sokhna C, Gaye O, Doumbo O. Developing research in infectious and tropical diseases in Africa: The paradigm of Senegal. Clin Infect Dis 2017;65:S64-9.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Lindoso JA, Lindoso AA. Neglected tropical diseases in Brazil. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2009;51:247-53.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Hotez PJ, Bottazzi ME, Franco-Paredes C, Ault SK, Periago MR. The neglected tropical diseases of Latin America and the Caribbean: A review of disease burden and distribution and a roadmap for control and elimination. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2008;2:e300.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Sriwijitalai W, Wiwanitkit V. Coinfection between human immunodeficiency virus and tuberculosis: A consideration on ritonavir-related heme Oxygenase-1 pathway. Biomed Biotechnol Res J 2019;3:95-100.  Back to cited text no. 5
  [Full text]  
6.
Sriwijitalai W, Wiwanitkit V. Chikungunya virus infection and cholangiocarcinoma; A common pathway network analysis. Acta Persica Pathophysiol 2019;4:e01.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Wiwanitkit V. Endothelin-1 and protein kinase C co-expression in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. J Diabetes Complications 2007;21:359-62.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Cao R, Teskey G, Islamoglu H, Abrahem R, Munjal S, Gyurjian K, et al. Characterizing the effects of glutathione as an immunoadjuvant in the treatment of tuberculosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2018;62. pii: e01132-18.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Perina EA, Ivanov VV, Pershina AG, Perekucha NA, Dzyuman AN, Kaminskii IP, et al. Imbalance in the glutathione system in Opisthorchis felineus infected liver promotes hepatic fibrosis. Acta Trop 2019;192:41-8.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Morris D, Khurasany M, Nguyen T, Kim J, Guilford F, Mehta R, et al. Glutathione and infection. Biochim Biophys Acta 2013;1830:3329-49.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Connell ND, Venketaraman V. Control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection by glutathione. Recent Pat Antiinfect Drug Discov 2009;4:214-26.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Allen M, Bailey C, Cahatol I, Dodge L, Yim J, Kassissa C, et al. Mechanisms of control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by NK cells: Role of glutathione. Front Immunol 2015;6:508.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Golubović S, Stanković I, Ristić L, Cosić V, Dordević I, Radović M. Antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation products in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Med Pregl 2010;63:450-3.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Zolotukhin VA. Experimental models of combined tuberculosis-opisthorchiasis pathology. Probl Tuberk 1992;11-12:65-9.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Sukhanov DS, Ivanov AK, Kovalenko AL, Dziuba EG, Andreeva MN, Romantsov MG. Pathogenetic therapy of tuberculosis of respiratory organs during sanatorium-and-spa treatment. Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult 2009;6:34-7.  Back to cited text no. 15
    


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