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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 127-131

Effect of fluoride on the uteroplacental transfer of calcium and magnesium and their role in congenital anomalies in newborns


Department of Biochemistry, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Abhra Ghosh
Department of Biochemistry, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana - 141 001, Punjab
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/bbrj.bbrj_157_19

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Background: Calcium and magnesium are one of the most important micronutrients for fetal development. Environmental pollutants such as excess fluoride can hamper the action of calcium and magnesium, resulting in a bad outcome of pregnancy. Aim: We aimed to find out the effect of fluoride on the uteroplacental transfer of calcium and magnesium and their role of these minerals as a causative factor of congenital anomalies in newborns. Methods: Thirty newborns with congenital anomalies were included in Group I, and thirty healthy newborns were included in Group II. Cord blood fluoride was estimated by ion-selective electrode, whereas calcium and magnesium were estimated by the autoanalyzer. Unpaired “t” test and Pearson's correlation test were applied for the statistical analysis. Results: Serum fluoride levels were significantly raised, and serum calcium levels and serum magnesium levels were statistically significantly decreased in newborns with congenital anomalies as compared to newborns without congenital anomalies (P = 0.000). Serum fluoride levels showed a positive correlation with serum calcium in Group II, which got inverted in Group I. Both the results were statistically significant. Serum fluoride levels showed a positive correlation with serum magnesium levels in Group II, which got inverted in Group I. Both the results were statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Hypokalcemia and hypomagnesemia can affect fetal development. Environmental pollution due to fluorosis emerges as a factor as fluoride has a direct influence over calcium and magnesium absorption and transfer through the placenta to the developing fetus. Prophylactic measures have to be taken to counter the effect of fluorides on calcium and magnesium for the proper development of the growing fetus.


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