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   Table of Contents - Current issue
October-December 2019
Volume 3 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 213-281

Online since Tuesday, December 3, 2019

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Entomological studies for the surveillance of dengue in Iran, 2006–2016 p. 213
Mohammad Reza Shirzadi, Mohammad Mehdi Gouya, Mohammad Reza Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Faranak Gharachorloo
Dengue is the most quickly distributing mosquito-borne disease caused by flaviviruses. The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the essential vector for disease transmission. The aim of this report was to describe dengue in Iran. In 2006, the Ministry of Health of Iran conducted a coordinated series of meetings with the Ministry of Agriculture of Iran about the correct way of importing the lucky bamboo and other agricultural products. The Ministry of Health of Iran coordinated with the Department of Arbovirus of Pasteur Institute of Iran to investigate the human samples in cases suspected for dengue disease. In 2013, the guideline to control the dengue was prepared in the center for communicable diseases control, Ministry of Health and Medical education, Iran. In 2014, an operational program to disease control was prepared. A network of laboratories to entomological surveillance was established in 2014. The credit for equipping of entomology laboratories was provided. In 2015, a national plan for the prevention and control of dengue was prepared in the English language and with the WHO cooperation. Other plans such as preparation of the health messages about dengue and sending them to the medical universities were done. The surveillance activities against dengue were defined in three levels, including surveillance in the cities, surveillance in the provinces, and surveillance in the country. Other follow-up actions included planning for continued educational program for dengue in different universities of medical sciences, equipping of the entomology laboratories of the universities, and conducting the entomological checks and educational activities of the universities.
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Challenges of bovine tuberculosis control and genetic distribution in Africa p. 217
Benjamin David Thumamo Pokam, Prisca W Guemdjom, D Yeboah-Manu, Elroy P Weledji, Jude E Enoh, Patience G Tebid, Anne E Asuquo
Bovine tuberculosis (BTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis(M. bovis); a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), is a well-known zoonotic disease, which affects mainly cattle. Control programs have either nearly or completely eliminated this disease from domesticated animals in many developed countries. Its persistence in developing countries results from interactions between people, livestock transhumance, and wildlife. In addition, deficiencies in preventive and/or control measures, poor sanitation, veterinary and slaughterhouse services, and lack of political measures have been blamed. The proportion of human TB cases caused by M. bovis is most likely underestimated since tests to distinguish between MTBC are seldom performed. Molecular techniques, especially spoligotyping, have helped to link human and animal transmission. Several challenges in the control of M. bovis TB in Africa have been identified, and its eradication efforts require a holistic approach. This review explores the challenges in the control efforts of BTB in Africa, as well as the impact of the genotyping evolution and distribution of M. bovis in the continent and strategies to improve its control.
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Screening and optimization of staphylokinase from Staphylococcus aureus isolated from nasal swab of healthy students in Himachal Pradesh University, India p. 228
Kumari Deepa, Sameer Singh Faujdar, Wamik Azmi, Priya Mehrishi, Seema Solanki
Background: One of virulence factors produced by Staphylococcus aureus is staphylokinase (SAK), which enhances their proteolytic activity leading to tissue damage and improving bacterial invasiveness. In the present study, we estimated the ability to produce SAK by S. aureus isolates from nasal carriers. We would like to verify relationship between SAK production and different S. aureus isolates. Methods: In this study, all nasal swab samples from healthy nasal carriers were collected and further processed in the Department of Biotechnology, Himachal Pradesh University. All S. aureus isolates were screened for SAK and optimization was done. Results: Out of all S. aureus isolates 20% isolates were positive for SAK production. Isolate SAK-24 shown increase in SAK production after optimization and response surface methodology (RSM). Conclusion: Production of SAK varies from strain to strains. SAK production can be increased by optimization and RSM.
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Common and different lipidomes for lung cancer and tuberculosis: A comparative lipidomics analysis p. 233
Beuy Joob, Viroj Wiwanitkit
Background: Of several lung disorders, the important diseases that are considered important burdens worldwide in the present day include lung cancer and tuberculosis. Sometimes, the diagnosis of the two mentioned lung problems is difficult. To make a differential diagnosis between negative and positive lungs for either lung cancer or tuberculosis is a critical point for further proper management. In the present day, the advanced novel biomedical technology allows the practitioner to assess the imprints of the pathological lungs. Methods: Lipidomics is a new biocochemioinformatics technique that can be useful lipidome imprint identification of medical disorders. Here, the authors perform a comparative lipidomcis analysis for lung cancer and tuberculosis. Results: There are 11 specific lipidomes for lung cancer, and there are 10 specific lipidomes for tuberculosis. There is only one overlapping lipidome, phosphatidylglycerol (PG) (34:1). Conclusion: According to the present analysis, the PG (34:1) is the specific lipidome that can help differentiate between lung cancer and tuberculosis.
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Correlation study between urinary tract bacterial infection and some acute inflammatory responses p. 236
Falah Hasan Obayes AL-Khikani, Ghusin alban Adnan Auda, Aalae Salman Ayit
Background: There is no population in the world clear from urinary tract infection (UTI), especially among women. Urinary tract disease is a general term alluding to the bacterial infection anyplace in the urinary tract. It is commonly acknowledged that contamination of the upper urinary tract puts the patient in danger for kidney damage. The aim of the study was to identify the type of bacteria that cause UTI beside elevates the correlation between UTI and some inflammatory markers such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate, white blood cell, C-reactive protein (CRP), and hemoglobin for the UTI among patients in various sex and age groups. Methods: The study was carried in Baghdad Teaching Hospital during July 7, 2017–October 15, 2017. A sum of 45 UTI patients and 20 control group was collected. Results: The study showed that UTI increased in female than in male with 62.2% and 37.8%, respectively, and high risk at age 30–49 years with 42.2%. The microorganisms identified in this study were Escherichia coli (42.2%), followed by Enterobacter (8.9%), Pseudomonas and Klebsiella (6.7% for each), Proteus spp and Serratia spp (4.4% for each), and mixed culture (E. coli + Proteus and E. coli + Pseudomonas with 2.2% for each one). Conclusion: This study showed highly significant correlation between CRP and bacterial isolation.
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To evaluate total serum immunoglobulin E level and factors that effect on this level in Iraqi asthmatic children p. 240
Raghdah Maytham Hameed, Mohanad Mohsin Ahmed, Haidar Abdul Amir Najim Abood, Aqeel Mahdi Hussein
Background: Immunoglobulin E (IgE) has an important role in allergic disease, especially in asthma because it is highly responsive to the allergens; hence, the measure of IgE levels helps in the diagnosis of asthma and monitoring the patient state. Methods: The 85 asthmatic children, including 59 males and 26 females with asthma who had ages between 1 and 16 years collected at Karbala Teaching Hospital for Children with healthy controls which have same age and gender, were measured total IgE levels for them by using EUROIMMUN IgE ELISA kit. The clinical characteristics of patients were recorded by questionnaire and measurement of absolute eosinophil count by peripheral blood smear. Results: There was highly significantly different in IgE levels between patients and controls (P < 0.001). High IgE level observed in 42 (49.4%) of asthmatic patients was relating to age, eosinophil count, exposure to cigarette smoke, the severity of asthma, and use of treatment. Conclusions: Total serum IgE has an important role in the diagnosis of asthma and there are many factors affect its levels in asthmatic patients.
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Prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia Associated with Infectious Diarrhea in Al-Shomally population, Babil, Iraq p. 245
Falah Hasan Obayes AL-Khikani, Huda Ali Salman almosawey, Raghda Maithem Hameed, Basim Abid Ali Abid alhussain, Aalae Salman Ayit, Mohanad kadhim Mirdan Al-Ibraheemi, Mohanad Mohammed ali Yassen Alsalami
Background: Entamoeba histolytica (Eh) causes amebiasis in humans and is in charge of 100,000 deaths yearly, making it the third driving reason for death because of a protozoan parasite. Giardiasis is a main diarrheal disease with international allocation caused by Giardia lamblia. Aim of the Study: To show the current prevalence of Eh and G. lamblia infection among people living in Al-Shomally region in Babil, Middle of Iraq, as a cause of diarrhea in the community and for thorough recognition of this social problem and its important drawbacks on the general health. Methods: A total of 3176 patients with different ages attending the Al-Shomally General Hospital in Babil Province, middle of Iraq, in 2015 were involved. After collection, samples examined via macroscopic and microscopic examination for the presence of Eh and G. lamblia utilizing normal saline and lugholes iodine by direct method examination. Results: From 3176 patients with diarrheal episodes, 699 (22%) were infected by either of Eh (17.91%) or by G. lamblia (4.09%). The highest rate of infections of Eh and G. lamblia was in the age group of 15–44 years and more than 45 years, respectively. Most infection of Eh occurs in February. No significant differences between male and female (50.65% and 49.35% respectively) were observed. Conclusions: This study demonstrated high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection (Eh and G. lamblia) in the investigation region. Eh is prominent etiology of dysentery in Al-Shomally region. There is an urgent need to improve the living conditions, providing proper sewage disposal system and health education, and treat the infected persons by applying survey programs for parasites.
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Study of serum interleukin 5 level and factors that impact on this level in Iraqi asthmatic children p. 249
Raghdah Maytham Hameed, Haidar Abdul Amir Najim Abood, Mohanad Mohsin Ahmed, Aqeel Mahdi Hussein
Background: Interleukin-5 (IL-5) is a cytokine associated with the cause of several allergic diseases such as asthma due to their function in growth, activation, and maturation of eosinophils and stimulates B-cell growth and increases immunoglobulin E (IgE) secretion. The study aims to measure the IL-5 level in asthmatic children and detect the relationship between IL-5 level with eosinophils, total serum IgE level, and asthma severity. Methods: Eighty asthmatic children, including 55 males and 25 females with asthma who aged between 1 and 16 years collected at Kerbala Teaching Hospital for Children, were measured IL-5 level using Elabscience ELISA kit and measured total IgE level using EUROIMMUN IgE ELISA kit. However, absolute eosinophils count was examined by peripheral blood smear. In addition, the clinical characteristics of the patients were recorded by a questionnaire. Results: There was a significant difference in IL-5 level in asthma patients depending on sex, absolute eosinophil count, and use of treatment (P = 0.046, 0.046, and 0.001, respectively). However, there was no effect on the IL-5 level at asthmatic children depending on the age, body mass index, resident, exposure to cigarette smoking, family history of asthma/allergic diseases, asthma severity, and total serum IgE (P = 0.936, 0.769, 0.154, 0.898, 0.614, 0.550, and 0.874, respectively). Conclusions: IL-5 level had a positive correlation with absolute eosinophils count but not with total serum IgE. In addition, IL-5 level was a poor indicator of asthma severity.
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Association of Vitamin D levels with blood pressure changes and mean arterial pressure in prediabetics p. 253
K Goel, R Rajput, Simmi Kharb
Background: Hypertension, which is associated with cardiovascular disease, is emerging as a risk factor for prediabetes and diabetes. A few studies have taken into account of the impact of Vitamin D on blood pressure (BP) in individuals who have hypertension. It is still not clear whether serum Vitamin D concentration plays an important role in causing hypertension or not. Methods: The present study was planned to study the correlation of Vitamin D with BP and changes in mean arterial in prediabetics. This case–control study was conducted in Department of Biochemistry in collaboration with Department of Endocrinology, PGIMS, Rohtak. Forty consecutive diagnosed cases of prediabetes and forty age- and sex-matched healthy normoglycemic controls were enrolled. Routine biochemistry investigations were done as per standard methods. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D was analyzed by radioimmunoassay. SPSS version 23 was used, and results were expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Results: Systolic as well as diastolic BP (DBP) and mean arterial BP were higher in prediabetes cases as compared to controls. Vitamin D levels showed a negative correlation with systolic BP, DBP, and mean arterial pressure (MAP) in both prediabetes cases as well as in controls. Conclusions: The findings of the present study suggest that BP changes and MAP might be causative factor in the pathogenesis of prediabetes.
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Early diagnosis of smear-negative childhood pulmonary tuberculosis and its substantial yield in gastric lavage/aspirates through cartridge-based nucleic acid amplification test (Xpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis/rifampicin assay) p. 258
Prasanta Kumar Das, Somtirtha B Ganguly, Bodhisatya Mandal
Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) still remains the major public health threat in India. Early diagnosis is a priority as any delay may complicate the prognosis further leading to the failure of an effective control. India accounts for 6% incidence of pediatric TB cases in a population that has 40% as estimated latent TB cases. Gastric Lavage /aspirates were taken under study for pediatric patients as key population. Collection of sputum samples from the pediatric patients has been very difficult. The most common implementation of cartridge-based nucleic acid amplification tests (CBNAATs) in diagnosis of pediatric TB has augmented the detection rates. As a mandate for universal drug sensitivity, testing of smear-negative pediatric samples is set as a priority. The program included the smear-negative pulmonary samples contributing to high yield after sputum includes induced sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage, gastric aspirate, and gastric lavage. The study involves an analysis probing into the percentage contribution of these samples and the substantial yields of gastric lavage among these samples. Methods: Pulmonary pediatric samples were tested on CBNAAT by Xpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis/rifampicin (RIF) (Cepheid) based on the manufacturer's instruction. All necessary aseptic measures were taken. The data were captured in the Xpert software automatically during the tests and exported to the Microsoft Excel sheets for further analysis. A defined study design against each and every objective was set up. Results: From earlier studies, it was found that a point prevalence of 6%–7% of pediatric TB exists among the tested specimens every quarter. The periodic prevalence was found to be 5%, and the incidence rates ranged from 4.5% to 5%. RIF resistance detection showing a seasonal variation ranged from 13% to 15% among the CBNAAT-positive cases. Conclusions: The study concluded that more skilled collection centers for biological specimens are required to address the undetected pulmonary TB cases among the pediatric age group, especially below 6 months of age. About 5% prevalence and around 4.9% incidence is an alarming situation in the TB control scenario of West Bengal. Gastric lavage showed a major detection in children aged below 6 months of whom collecting sputum samples were difficult. This prompted suboptimal detection levels due to the dearth of sample collection modalities at the peripheries.
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A 10-year retrospective, clinicopathological study of 2100 ovarian lesions in a rural medical college hospital of West Bengal, India p. 264
Santosh Kumar Mondal
Background: Distribution of the different ovarian cancers has been widely studied in Western countries. However, such studies are limited in West Bengal of India, especially in rural areas. The aim was to study the distribution of morphological pattern of benign, malignant, and nonneoplastic ovarian lesions and bilateral involvement in different morphologic subtypes. The study was also aimed to observe different clinical presentations in ovarian lesions. Methods: A retrospective study from August 2009 to July 2019 was undertaken. A total of 2100 surgical specimens of ovaries were analyzed. Detailed clinical information and radiological findings were recorded from patients' case history sheets. Results: Of 2100 cases, benign ovarian lesions were found in 1491 cases (71%), malignant in 252 cases (12%), and nonneoplastic in 357 cases (17%). Serous cystadenoma was 41.45% of all benign tumors (618/1491 cases), followed by mucinous cystadenoma (22%, 328/1491 cases) and mature cystic teratoma (18.44%, 275/1491 cases). Among the malignant cases, highest bilaterality was seen in serous cystadenocarcinomas (41.30%) and among benign tumors in endometrioid tumors (27.58%). Bilateral follicular cysts were found in 35.21% cases among nonneoplastic diseases. Conclusion: Earlier presentation of malignant tumors was observed. Lower percentage of endometrioid carcinoma was also noted compared to other studies. The most common primary ovarian tumor with bilateral involvement was serous cystadenocarcinoma (41.30%) followed by endometrioid adenocarcinoma (33.33%).
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Computer-aided docking studies of phytochemicals from plants Salix subserrata and Onion as inhibitors of glycoprotein G of rabies virus p. 269
Tehseen M Dhorajiwala, Sumit T Halder, Lalit R Samant
Objective: Rabies is a viral disease caused by the bite of an infected animal commonly a dog majorly affecting people in Africa and Asia and is extremely fatal if the infected person is not vaccinated. The glycoprotein G of the rabies virus is an important viral protein involved in the virus entry through endocytosis and its replication in the host cell; this protein was chosen as the target protein for modeling and docking analysis. Methods: Phytochemicals from plants Salix subserrata and onion have been reported to showing anti-rabies activity and were screened for in silico toxicity using SwissADME and Protox-II servers, and the two phytochemicals passing the filters (+)-catechin and kaempferol were docked with the receptor protein. The phytochemicals were docked using the software AutoDock Vina and SwissDock server by keeping the grid dimensions the same to validate the docking results. Results: (+)-Catechin gave better binding affinity, full fitness, and estimated ΔG values by AutoDock Vina and SwissADME than kaempferol and also formed conventional hydrogen bonds with the target protein; thus, the important active binding residues were also obtained from the results. Conclusion: Hence, ligand (+)-catechin is a potential natural inhibitor against rabies, and the study thus established the importance of natural product-based drug discovery against one of the most neglected and fatal diseases that is rabies.
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Unsuccessful antituberculosis medication treatment: A characteristic summarization in a suburban province with dense communities of Myanmar migrant worker in Bangkok Metropolitan Region, Thailand p. 277
Rujittika Mungmunpuntipantip, Viroj Wiwanitkit
Background: Tuberculosis is an important local public health problem in several areas around the world, including Indochina. In Indochina, the extremely high incidence of tuberculosis is reported at Thailand–Myanmar border area, and the migrant worker is the specific population with a very high incidence of infection. The unsuccessful antituberculosis medication treatment is still the important problem to be managed. Methods: The authors analyzed the epidemiological data on the antituberculosis medication treatment results in suburban province with dense communities of Myanmar migrant worker in Bangkok Metropolitan Region, Thailand. Results: The nonsuccessful rate of antituberculosis medication treatment in this setting is equal to 11.11% (ranges between 7.1% and 17.4%). Transfer out without continuation and death are the two main subtypes of nonsuccess cases. Conclusion: There is still a high incidence of unsuccessful antituberculosis medication treatment in the study setting.
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Ortner's cardiovocal syndrome: A rare cause of hoarseness of voice p. 280
Swetabh Purohit, Varsha Joshee
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