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  Indian J Med Microbiol
 

Figure 1: Biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa proceeds through four different stages, wherein dispersal constitutes the fifth stage. Planktonic bacteria weakly attach to surface (within a host or abiotic) to form microcolonies. Microcolonies aggregate further to form macrocolonies with robust adhesion. Macrocolonies evolve into mature mushroom-shaped biofilms. Cells associated with biofilms are then dispersed to once again resume the planktonic lifestyle. Cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate is a cellular second messenger whose levels are intricately regulated during the different stages of biofilm formation. The upper panel illustrates the various diguanylate cyclase (red), phosphodiesterase (blue), different enzymatic recruiters are activated at different stages of biofilm formation, (as indicated in the panel). Phosphodiesterases are maximally induced in mature biofilms, where cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate levels are reduced for dispersion to occur

Figure 1: Biofilm formation by <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i> proceeds through four different stages, wherein dispersal constitutes the fifth stage. Planktonic bacteria weakly attach to surface (within a host or abiotic) to form microcolonies. Microcolonies aggregate further to form macrocolonies with robust adhesion. Macrocolonies evolve into mature mushroom-shaped biofilms. Cells associated with biofilms are then dispersed to once again resume the planktonic lifestyle. Cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate is a cellular second messenger whose levels are intricately regulated during the different stages of biofilm formation. The upper panel illustrates the various diguanylate cyclase (red), phosphodiesterase (blue), different enzymatic recruiters are activated at different stages of biofilm formation, (as indicated in the panel). Phosphodiesterases are maximally induced in mature biofilms, where cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate levels are reduced for dispersion to occur