• Users Online: 1486
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
Export selected to
Reference Manager
Medlars Format
RefWorks Format
BibTex Format
  Access statistics : Table of Contents
   2021| October-December  | Volume 5 | Issue 4  
    Online since December 14, 2021

  Archives   Previous Issue   Next Issue   Most popular articles   Most cited articles
Hide all abstracts  Show selected abstracts  Export selected to
  Viewed PDF Cited
Diabetic microvascular complications and proposed interventions and approaches of management for patient care
Anmar Al-Taie, Assem Sabbah Elseidy, Arueyingho Oritsetimeyin Victoria, Abdul Hafeez, Shmmon Ahmad
October-December 2021, 5(4):380-388
Patients with diabetes mellitus are more likely to suffer microvascular complications, such as diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy, and diabetic neuropathy, which, if undiagnosed or untreated, may have a debilitating effect on patients' quality of life and pose a substantial financial strain on health-care providers. Glycemic regulation and diabetes length are the most powerful risk factors; nevertheless, other modifiable risk factors including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and smoking, as well as unmodifiable risk factors, including age at onset of diabetes and genetic factors can all play a role. In addition to the involvement of potential risk factors, several links have been discovered between diabetic microvascular complications and one another, which seems to be significant associations for the development of these different microvascular complications. However, in order to help mitigate morbidity and mortality, considering the initiation and progression of all three complications as interconnected must be identified and managed at an early stage. Therefore, a variety of approaches to developing therapies to mitigate the negative effects of these complications are currently being studied in clinical trials which may contribute to potential long-term benefits in the management of different diabetic microvascular complications. This literature review summarizes the cellular and molecular pathways that lead to diabetic microvascular pathologies with emphasis on the clinical benefits of a variety of therapeutic approaches and insights into simple, comprehensive therapeutic interventions for clinical practice which could be optimal to reduce the risk and severity of different diabetic microvascular complications.
  2,566 259 1
Plant-based vaccines: Potentiality against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2
Pramita Sharma, Himel Mondal, Shaikat Mondal, Rabindranath Majumder
October-December 2021, 5(4):366-373
The pandemic of novel coronavirus disease-19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has stimulated scientists from different backgrounds to gear up on developing vaccines against the virus. Several antigenic epitopes of the virus have the potential to induce an immunogenic response, among which viral spike protein (“S” protein) is considered to be the most suitable vaccine candidate. In this review, the latest progress in the field of plant molecular pharming (PMF), its application, limitations, and commercial initiatives toward the production of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine have been discussed. Vaccine production by PMF has gained considerable attention these days and can be used for large-scale commercial production of antigenic proteins, antibodies, and other biopharmaceuticals. New age plant breeding techniques facilitated by CRISPR-Cas-based genome editing technology and next-generation sequencing methods also help to achieve greater precision and rapidity. Several unique advantages are offered by plant-based vaccine production techniques over that of the microbial or mammalian cell culture system. Virus-like particles and Agrobacterium-mediated transient somatic expression systems have a high potential for the large scale, cost-effective, and robust production of plant-derived vaccines against SARS-CoV-2.
  2,266 292 2
Ionotropic glutamate receptors and their implications in cancer and cancer therapeutics
Shree Goyal, Pallab Chakraborty, Balasubramaniam Shankar
October-December 2021, 5(4):349-356
Glutamine, an excitatory neurotransmitter, is necessary for physiological as well as pathological processes. Other than neuronal disorders and/or cancers, glutamate receptors have also been associated with an array of other malignancies. The metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR 1–8 [like Groups I, II, and III]) and ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR) have been targeted to treat cancers like carcinoma of the lung, breast, prostate, and oral cancer. iGluRs present on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA receptors are multisubunit complexes. Since these subunits of NMDA receptors influence the mTOR signaling pathway significantly, their antagonists such as memantine, ifenprodil, or diclozipine are often used in cancer chemotherapy. Non-NMDA receptors such as α-amino 3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate (AMPA) and kainate undergo glutamine to arginine site-specific RNA editing inflicting changes in cancer cell permeability. Thus, the employment of antagonists specific to these receptors would provide an effective anticancer therapeutic approach. Since AMPA receptors and kainate receptors have a crucial role in neural development and other cellular processes, their contribution in tumorigenesis has been mainly recognized in brain tumors although their role in further cancers cannot be ruled out. Delta or orphan receptors are primarily classified based on sequence homology. The effect and activity of antagonists for metabotropic and iGluRs have been pointed out due to their remedial contribution in various tumors. This review also highlights the relation of a range of subunits to cancer and anticancer agents as curatives for future applications and investigations.
  2,115 331 -
Histopathological changes in placenta in pregnancy-induced hypertensive patients and correlation with fetal outcome – a tertiary care hospital study
Aparajita Samaddar, Utso Guha Roy, Ipsita Saha, Srishtidhar Mangal
October-December 2021, 5(4):440-445
Background: The placenta, fetus, and mother form a composite functional equilibrium during prenatal period. The dysfunction of placenta often leads to preeclampsia/eclampsia. They remain the major causes of maternal and perinatal mortality. It has been revealed that there is a clear relationship between placental pathology and intrauterine growth restriction in preeclampsia. Aim of this study was to evaluate the histomorphological changes of placenta in pregnancy induced hypertensive disorders and to compare those with normal placenta and to correlate the findings with foetal outcome in terms of APGAR score and birth weights of newborn babies. Materials and Methods: This was an analytical cross-sectional study. We included 50 pregnant women with pregnancy induced hypertension as cases and 50 normotensive pregnant women as controls. Specimens of placenta from each cases and controls were collected after delivery and processed by routine histopathology technique. We looked for morphological and histological changes in placenta. We also collected the data on APGAR scores, birth weight and fetal death, if any. Microsoft Excel 2013 and Minitab version 17 were utilized for statistical analysis. Results: We found statistically significant reduction in placental weight, diameter and thickness among cases compared to controls and there is also a strong correlation with the histopathological changes of placenta in hypertensive mothers to fetal weight. Birth weights of newborns to hypertensive mothers were significantly lower than those of normotensive mothers. Conclusion: Hypertensive disorders of Pregnancy causes significant histomorphological changes in placenta leading to adverse foetal outcome.
  1,857 197 -
Identification and categorization of brain tumors using ensemble classifiers with hybrid features
Royappan Savarimuthu Sabeenian, Vadivelan Vijitha
October-December 2021, 5(4):357-365
Day by day the new rate of brain tumor causes is diagnosed. To make use of technology, the standard of lifestyle for many patients was increased their survival rate. Medical imaging modalities were contributing more because the internal formation of the human brain is more complicated to diagnosis. In this field, various modalities are used to detect but the invention of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gives more attention, especially to detect brain tumor. The proposed work is focused on segmenting the tumor region in the MR images. The Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) is used to extract attributes from tumour images, which is then used with PCA to reduce the dimensionality of the attributes. Gray level co-occurrence method based different features are extracted in the MRI which is given as input to the classification learner such as ensemble, support vector machine, K-nearest neighbor, Naïve, and Fine Tree which are used to classify efficiently. The method is achieved 99% of accuracy according to that trained with 30 images and tested with 100 images. From that tumor images have been split up into benign or malignant. With this trouble-free method is used in MR images to give high accuracy.
  1,700 235 1
Formulation of new intelligent nanoparticle inhibited H1N1 influenza subtype and SARS coronavirus type 2 (COVID-19) in vitro
Nima Shirmohammadi, Arefeh Khodaee, Maryam Rahimi, Marzieh Vanayi, Reza Aghanouri
October-December 2021, 5(4):389-397
Background: Rapid infection of the coronavirus and frequency of the subtypes are the main problems of drug and vaccine intervention during COVID-19 pandemic. New drug discovery to respond these needs, is the goal of study. Hence, considering structural and biological components of SARS-CoV-2, new intelligent particle designed and formulated and several dockings were done as in silico assay. Methods: Fe3O4 nanoparticles synthesized by the coprecipitation method, coated and functionalized. Chemical bindings (Fourier transform infrared assay), magnetic behavior (vibrating sample magnetometer assay), morphology (field emission scanning electron microscope assay), and cell toxicity and cell viability (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay) were checked and confirmed in vitro by exposure of particles to the H1N1 virus laboratory media exposure (BSL2 category). Results: Results show drug has ability to reduce more than 4 logarithms in the virus titration, in concentration of 70 μg/ml, so it was proved these nanoparticles could have antiviral effect. Although, because of lack of BSL3 standard laboratory, the antiviral effect on COVID-19 could not be performed on large scale. Conclusions: By the way, we concluded that new specific nanoparticles could make a new chance for COVID-19 drug therapy at any subtype exposure.
  1,468 182 -
Co-regulatory network of transcription factor and microrna: A key player of gene regulation
Akshara Pande
October-December 2021, 5(4):374-379
Transcription factor (TF) and microRNA (miRNA) interaction plays a vital role in the regulation of biological networks. TFs and miRNAs control the gene expression: TF at transcriptional level by affecting the messenger RNA (mRNA) transcription and miRNA at posttranscriptional level by affecting the transcription and translation. Furthermore, sometimes, both miRNAs and TFs regulate one another's expressions; as a consequence, this may influence the expression of the target gene. In order to understand the main co-regulatory mechanisms underlying, it is important to identify biologically relevant network motifs involving TFs, miRNAs and their targets. The present study focuses on TF, miRNA and target gene interactions.
  1,443 180 -
Prevalence of vancomycin-resistant enterococcus causing urinary tract infection in a tertiary care hospital of Eastern India
Sanjeev Das, Jayashree Konar, Manas Talukdar
October-December 2021, 5(4):463-465
Background: The increasing prevalence of urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) is of particular concern within many institutions because of limited treatment options. Objective: The objective of the study is to estimate the prevalence of VRE amongst the urinary pathogens along with detection of the antimicrobials effective against VRE in vitro. Materials and Methods: This hospital-based descriptive cross-sectional study was performed from January 1, 2019, to December 31, 2020, with 1037 adult patients developing symptoms of UTI. Mid-stream urine was collected in proper aseptic manner for microbiological culture to isolate and identify the bacterial pathogen. Collected urine samples were screened for pus cells and bacteria. This was followed by plating on (basal media), blood agar (enriched media), and MacConkey's agar media (differential and selective media), followed by overnight incubation at 37°C. Species confirmation and minimum inhibitory concentration value determination were done by automation. Results: Out of total 1037 collected urine samples, 693 were culture positive for bacterial etiology (66.8%). 457 urine cultures were positive for Enterococcus spp., of which 41 were vancomycin resistant (8.97%). A total of 18 Enterococcus faecalis isolates (4.72%) were vancomycin resistant, whereas significantly higher number of Enterococcus faecium, i.e., 23 isolates (30.26%) were vancomycin resistant (P < 0.01). All of 41 VRE isolates were resistant to ampicillin. No trends were observed for resistance against nitrofurantoin, tigecycline, linezolid, and daptomycin. These remained highly effective against VRE across the study period. Conclusion: Since VRE is emerging as a prevalent uropathogen with limited therapeutic options, the use of vancomycin demands judicious administration to treat UTI. Hence, antimicrobial stewardship deserves a crucial role to play.
  1,360 212 -
Comparison of anti-inflammatory activities of biogenic gymnema sylvestre- and panicum sumatrense-mediated titanium dioxide nanoparticles
Moses Stella Bharathy, Gnanasekar Dayana Jeyaleela, Joseph Devaraj Rosaline Vimala, Aranganathan Agila, Sagaya Adaikalaraj Margrat Sheela
October-December 2021, 5(4):405-411
Background: Studying the anti-inflammatory effect of the wound-healing property in immune responsive compounds such as interleukins and cytokinins plays a vital role in targeting various inflammatory diseases such as asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, tuberculosis, and periodontitis. The goal of the present work is to compare the anti-inflammatory activity of Gymnema sylvestre (GS)- and Panicum sumatrense (PS)-mediated titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) by in vitro studies. Methods: G. sylvestre- and P. sumatrense-mediated TiO2 NPs were synthesized by Greener method. The synthesized TiO2 NPs were spectroscopically characterized such as Ultraviolet-visible, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDAX). The in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of GS-TiO2 and PS-TiO2 NPs were carried out by albumin denaturation assay. Results: The size of G. sylvestre-mediated TiO2 (GS-TiO2) NPs was found to be 16–22 nm and that of P. sumatrense (PS-TiO2)-mediated NPs was in the range of 26–32 nm. Rectangle, hexagonal, and square types of NPs were recorded in the SEM analysis of both the GS-TiO2 and PS-TiO2. When comparing the X-ray powder diffraction and EDAX results of GS-TiO2 and PS-TiO2, G. sylvestre-mediated TiO2 showed less impurity and along with that, it revealed pure titanium in 50.50% and oxygen in 35.54%. Similarly, G. sylvestre-mediated TiO2 nanoparticles exhibited 91.52% of inhibitory effect on protein denature (in vitro anti-inflammatory activity), whereas P. sumatrense (PS-TiO2)-mediated NPs showed only 84.80%. Conclusion: The overall study concludes that G. sylvestre-mediated TiO2 nanoparticle can have a scope in alternative treatment/remedy for inflammation diseases.
  1,312 180 -
Evaluation of genetic diversity and origin of song ma village dogs in Vietnam
Xuan Phuong Bui, Thanh Hai Pham, Huu Coi Tran, Thanh Tung Phung, Quang Duc Ngo, The Dung Dinh, Quang Toan Dam, Dinh Duy Vu
October-December 2021, 5(4):412-419
Background: Vietnam's Song Ma village dog is a breed of indigenous dog found along the Ma River in Vietnam. They have many excellent traits, like their intelligence, agility, friendliness toward humans, and more importantly, they are very easy to train, and have the instinctive hunting capabilities of their wild canine ancestors. However, the exploration of genetic diversity and the origins of Song Ma village dogs in Vietnam have a serious lack of information. It is very difficult to promote the conservation of these dogs. Therefore, urgently needed in order to uncover and better understand the genetic architecture of Song Ma village dogs. Methods: We used 100 blood samples collected in Vietnam to estimate genetic diversity by sequencing the hypervariable-1 region. Results: We reported high levels of genetic diversity in the Song Ma village dog (Pi = 0.00912, Hd = 0.969, and Kt = 5.456). A total of 51 different haplotypes were identified in four haplogroups (A, B, C, and E). Furthermore, Song Ma village dogs were discovered in rare groups such as B1, B5, B6, B10, C2, and E1. Notably, no one in the haplogroup has the haplotypes (D and F). There were 49 single nucleotide polymorphisms, including 48 nucleotide base substitution or insertion changes and six nucleotide indel mutations found in the Song Ma village dog. A phylogenetic tree showed that Song Ma village dogs have a close relationship with dogs that originated from East Asia. Conclusions: This study has provided a valuable platform for breeding and conservation and management of the species in Vietnam.
  1,285 127 -
Computational bioprospecting of andrographolide derivatives as potent cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors
Somdutt Mujwar
October-December 2021, 5(4):446-450
Background: Inflammation is a protective response of the human body that still causes a high level of discomfort because of the associated pain and other inflammatory reactions. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have certain associated severe side-effects such as hepatotoxicity. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop a novel anti-inflammatory agent to counter the associated problems with the existing NSAIDs. Methods: The herbal sources are a very vast treasure for exploring potential leads for the development of novel therapeutic agents to counter the existing healthcare problems for the welfare of humankind. Thus, in the current experimental study, the author has tried to develop some of the novel andrographolide analogs as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors by using bioisosteric substitutions. Results: The newly developed andrographolide derivatives have a high affinity for the human COX-2 enzyme, an optimized pharmacokinetic profile as well as being free from any associated toxic effects. Conclusion: The andrographolide derivatives as COX-2 inhibitors are supposed to be free from the side effects associated with NSAIDs with an optimized pharmacokinetic profile.
  1,126 139 10
Identification of molecular signatures and pathways to identify novel therapeutic targets in mild cognitive impairment: Insights from a systems biomedicine perspective
Vineeta Singh, Vijaya Nath Mishra
October-December 2021, 5(4):451-457
Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the accumulation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. However, there are no peripheral biomarkers available that can detect AD onset. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is the earlier stage of AD. Aims and Objectives: This study aimed to identify the molecular signatures and target and its therapeutic intervention in MCI-AD through a detailed analysis of gene of MCI and AD. Materials and Methods: We used the disease gene set of AD and MCI (GSE4226 and GSE4229) comparing to identify common genes among them. GIn the present study we have attempted to identify gene set, protein-protein interaction and Transcription factors associated with MCI and AD. Result and Conclusion: Conclusively, the present study will provide a set of markers as biological processes, cellular components, molecular function, various pathways, and different TFs which might help in better understanding of disease mechanism progression and also might act as a target for therapeutic interventions for the treatment of MCI and AD.
  1,112 106 -
Inflammatory response in relationship with the degree of hyperglycemia and expression of viral immune products in diabetes mellitus patients
Mathew Folaranmi Olaniyan, Tolulope Busayo Ojediran
October-December 2021, 5(4):398-404
Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is characterized by hyperglycemia which may cause dysfunction in immune response, which may affect the control of infectious agents. The objective of this study is therefore to determine inflammatory response in relationship with the degree of hyperglycemia and the expression of viral immune products in DM patients. Methods: The study population therefore included 151 DM patients (female 71; male 80; aged 43–76 years) and 100 (female 50; male 50; aged 40–76 years) apparently healthy nondiabetes control subjects. All subjects were negative to Giemsa thick blood film staining and Ziehl–Neelsen staining for acid fast bacilli. HIVP24 antigen antibody (Ag Ab), anti hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg) were determined in the subjects by ELISA, while blood glucose was measured spectrophotometrically. Results: The frequency of 1.3% (2) HIVP24 Ag Ab, 4.6% (7) anti HCV, and 15.9% (24) HBeAg obtained in DM patients while a frequency 1% (1) HIVP24 Ag Ab. 6% (6) anti HCV, and 6% (6) HBeAg was obtained in non DM control subjects. There was an association between the expression of HIVP24 Ag Ab and DM considering the odds ratio (OR) of 1.329. There was no association between the expression of anti HCV and DM considering the OR of 0.7616 (OR 0.05). However, there was a significant association between the expression of HBeAg and DM considering the OR of 2.961 (OR >1.0; P< 0.05). Overall, 21.9% (33) of the DM expressed viral immune products; HBeAg was the most prevalent immune product in DM patients. There was a significantly higher plasma tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) in DM patients with viral immune products than the results obtained in non DM without viral immune products(P < 0.05). There was a significantly higher difference in the value of TNFα in the degree of hyperglycemia of fasting blood glucose of 251–300 mg/dl compared with 201–250 mg/dl; 301–350 mg/dl compared with 201–250 mg/dl; 351–400 mg/dl compared with 201–250 mg/dl; 351–400 mg/dl compared with 251–300 mg/dl; 251–300 mg/dl compared with nondiabetic control; 301–350 mg/dl compared with nondiabetic control; and 351–400 mg/dl compared with nondiabetic control (P < 0.05). There was a significantly higher difference in the value of fasting blood glucose in the degree of hyperglycemia of fasting blood glucose of 301–350 mg/dl compared with 201–250 mg/dl; 351–400 mg/dl compared with 201–250 mg/dl; 201–250 mg/dl compared with nondiabetic control; 251–300 mg/dl compared with nondiabetic control; 301–350 mg/dl compared with nondiabetic control; and 351–400 mg/dl compared with nondiabetic control (P < 0.05). Conclusions: There was a significant increase in TNFα in diabetes patients, which increases as the degree of hyperglycemia increases and higher in diabetes patients who expressed viral immune product as there was a significant association between the expression of viral immune products, especially HBeAg and DM; hence, there was a significant relationship between inflammatory response, the degree of hyperglycemia, and the expression of viral immune products in DM patients.
  1,026 151 2
Correlation of serum lipoprotein (a) levels with angiographic lesion severity in coronary artery disease
Vineet Kulkarni, Sukanya Shetty, K Subramanya, Anirban Chakraborty, Prakash Patil, Roopa Bhandary, Rashmi Kundapur
October-December 2021, 5(4):458-462
Background: The several epidemiological and meta-analysis studies suggested that the elevated lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) level is associated to cause the coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the role of this pro-atherogenic Lp (a) in regulating the severity of angiographic lesions in CAD is poorly understood. This study aimed to estimate the serum Lp (a) level and find its correlation with angiographic lesion severity in subjects with CAD. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 107 subjects angiographic lesion severity was determined by SYNergy between percutaneous coronary interventions with TAXUS and cardiac surgery (SYNTAX) scoring system and grouped into mild (<22) and severe (≤22) based on the SYNTAX score. The serum Lp (a) concentration in subjects' serum was measured by immunoturbidimetric assay. Results: The median Lp (a) level of all subjects was found to be 14.8 mg/dL, it was higher in severe angiographic lesion group (18.9 mg/dL, interquartile range [IQR]: 12.3–24.4) when compared to mild group (13.7 mg/dL, IQR: 6.6–18.6). The Spearman correlation analysis revealed that the relationship between serum Lp (a) level and angiographic lesion severity in mild and severe subjects is not statistically significant except with the mild group female subjects. Conclusions: Overall, this study does not support the association of angiographic lesion severity with serum Lp (a) levels in CAD. To infer precisely, similar studies with more subjects are needed to confirm this study's findings.
  1,034 125 -
Non-AIDS comorbidities among people with HIV at a moroccan referral hospital: Prevalence and factors associated with metabolic complications
Hicham Titou, Mohammed Boui, Naoufal Hjira
October-December 2021, 5(4):420-424
Background: Among people living with HIV receiving antiretroviral therapy, the prevalence of non-AIDS-related comorbidities is increasing. In Morocco, there are limited dataregarding the profile of non-AIDS comorbidities in this population. The prevalence of non-AIDS comorbidities and the factors associated with metabolic complications among HIV-infected patients are described. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2018 and included 269 HIV-infected patients. A medical officer reviewed records for non-AIDS comorbidities. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between metabolic complications and interesting potential variables. Results: A total of 269 individuals were inducted into the study. The mean age was 48.9 ± 10.7 years and 75.5% were men. The median current CD4+ T-cell count was 613 cells ml−1 (IQR: 390–784 cells ml− 1). More than a third of the patients (34.8%) had at least two non-AIDS comorbidities. The most prevalent comorbidities were hyperlipidemia in 56 (20.8%) patients. In multivariate analysis, older age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.04, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02–1.07) and obesity (OR = 4.25, 95% CI = 1.54–8.74) were associated with the presence of metabolic complications. Conclusions: The prevalence of comorbidities is high, particularly in older people. Care models for HIV-positive patients should include clinical monitoring and effective management of these comorbidities and metabolic complications to complete long-term survival.
  1,010 111 -
Gene expression analysis to network construction for the identification of hub genes involved in neurodevelopment
Ruchi Yadav
October-December 2021, 5(4):425-434
Background: Gene expression information can be decoded to identify not only differentially expressed genes but also co-expressed genes that can give insight into protein interaction network. Current research has been done for the prediction of genes associated with Neurodevelopmental process using Microarray data and to construct the network of coexpressed genes and their functional annotation. Methods: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were exposed with Resveratrol (RV), Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) and RV+NGF to study the effect of neuroprotective role of RV (Data submitted NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO Series accession number GSE121261). Bioinformatics software's, tools and databases like R and Bioconductor, Affy package, CoExpress 1.0b software, Metascape tool and Gene Ontology database was used prediction and functional enrichment of coexpressed genes. Normalization was done using RMA (Robust Multi-array Average) as implemented in Affy package and co-expressed genes were identified using CoExpress 1.0b with default parameters. Results: Co- expression result shows that total 135 genes have same gene expression across microarray chip these genes have function in different biological processes like, developmental processes, MAPK TRK pathway, muscle structure development etc. Total fifteen were identified that have function in nervous system development. Conclusions: This study identifies the list of co-expressed that were expressed in neurodevelopmental stage. These genes can be used further as neuronal markers, neuronal injury identification and diagnosis prospective at the developmental stage. Further verification methods are required for these predicted proteins for their applicability in drug development process.
  944 112 -
Impact of 27gln\glu polymorphisms of β2-adrenergic receptor gene on pulmonary function in asthmatic children treated with nebulized salbutamol
Haidar A N. Abood
October-December 2021, 5(4):435-439
Background: The β2-adrenergic receptor gene is a typical candidate for the study of genetic polymorphism. Many patients with asthma do not respond to β2-agonist; in addition, a wide interindividual variability in pharmacological response exists, likely because of the interaction between clinical, environmental, and genetic factors. Methods: A total of 80 children (55 boys and 25 girls) with mild-moderate acute asthma attacks, ages range between 5 and 18 years, attended the Asthma Clinic at Karbala Teaching Hospital for Children were included in this study. Spirometry (Spirolab III) was used for lung function assessment before and after treatment with nebulized salbutamol, and allele-specific polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of β2-adrenergic receptor gene at nucleic acid 79 (27 amino acid position). Results: The effect of treatment with nebulized salbutamol on lung function in asthmatic children having different genotypes of 27Gln\Glu SNP demonstrated that patients having GG and CG genotypes showed significant improvement (P < 0.05) in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC ratio, and FEV1% predicted after treatment, while patients having CC genotype showed significant improvement (P < 0.05) in FEV1, FVC, and FEV1% predicted after treatment with nebulized salbutamol without significant improvement in FEV1/FVC ratio. Patients having CG genotype of 27Gln\Glu SNP showed highest change (increase) in FEV1 (185.38 ± 174.93 ml) and in FEV1% predicted (14.96 ± 15.45%) after treatment with nebulized salbutamol in comparison with other genotype groups although this change was not statistically significant between groups. Conclusion: Asthmatic children having CG and GG genotypes of β2-adrenergic receptor gene (27Gln\Glu) showed better improvement in lung function after treatment with nebulized salbutamol in comparison with those having CC (27Gln\Glu) genotype during mild-to-moderate acute asthma attacks.
  893 89 -