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  Indian J Med Microbiol
 

Figure 1: Hantavirus pathogenesis and immunity features. In the hantavirus-infected individuals, the major targets are the vascular endothelial cells, mononuclear phagocytes (MNP), and follicular dendritic cells (DC). The virus is known to cause two related hyperinflammatory syndromes: HFRS, and HPS. Viral infection usually leads to an elevated production of cytokines and cytotoxic lymphocytes with the onset of several typical flu-like symptoms, hypotension, acute shock, vascular leakage, kidney failure, and even lung failure symptoms. As stated in the text, the most common causative agent of HFRS in Europe is PUUV whereby the MNP, granulocyte, natural killer (NK) cell, as well as CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell responses have been noticed. The responses regarding B cells, the activation of the mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, and the production of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in acute PUUV infection are still obscure. Monocytes, macrophages, and the dendritic cells (DCs) may protect the host from viral antigens binding from T cells and also may produce IFN-1 and other cytokines and hence can trigger the virus-specific immune responses

Figure 1: Hantavirus pathogenesis and immunity features. In the hantavirus-infected individuals, the major targets are the vascular endothelial cells, mononuclear phagocytes (MNP), and follicular dendritic cells (DC). The virus is known to cause two related hyperinflammatory syndromes: HFRS, and HPS. Viral infection usually leads to an elevated production of cytokines and cytotoxic lymphocytes with the onset of several typical flu-like symptoms, hypotension, acute shock, vascular leakage, kidney failure, and even lung failure symptoms. As stated in the text, the most common causative agent  of HFRS in Europe is PUUV whereby the MNP, granulocyte, natural killer (NK) cell, as well as CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell responses have been noticed. The responses regarding B cells, the activation of the mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, and the production of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in acute PUUV infection are still obscure. Monocytes, macrophages, and the dendritic cells (DCs) may protect the host from viral antigens binding from T cells and also may produce IFN-1 and other cytokines and hence can trigger the virus-specific immune responses